Prevalence and factors contributing to domestic violence against pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Lusaka Urban
Mwiinga, Mavis Dorothy
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The problem of domestic violence is wide-spread and has continued over many years. It occurs in women of all racial backgrounds and social economic group. Pregnant women have not been spared from domestic violence. Physical violence in pregnancy has been associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Unfortunately, no research had been conducted in Zambia, hence this study.The purpose of this study was to determine the Prevalence and Factors Contributing to Domestic Violence Against Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lusaka Urban.A Cross Sectional Descriptive Study was conducted. 385 pregnant women were interviewed using a scheduled questionnaire. The respondents were systematically selected from 6 different health centers which where randomly selected. 1 in every 5 pregnant women seen was selected. To complement data from the survey, two focus group discussions (comprising 12 pregnant women each) were conducted. The results revealed that out of 385 respondents, 169 (44.0 percent) had ever experienced domestic violence. Meanwhile 92 (23.9 percent) out of 384 respondents experienced domestic violence in their current pregnancy. The common forms of domestic violence were beatings 116 (68.6 percent), followed by insults 55 (32.7 percent) and sexual abuse/non consensual sex 18 (10.7 percent). The main perpetrator of domestic violence was the husband/intimate partner 165(98.7 percent).The majority 37 (40.2 percent) of the respondents who experienced domestic violence were in the age group 21-25 years, came from high density areas 229 (59.5 percent), were Nyanja speaking people 143 (37.5 percent), married 338 (87.8 percent), and belonged to Liberal Protestant Denominations 155 (40.5 percent). With regard to educational level, most 37 (10.2 percent) of the respondents who experienced domestic violence had secondary education. In relation to occupation, 53 (62.7 percent) of the respondents that were employed experienced domestic violence in their current pregnancy, compared with 172 (65.9 percent) who did not experience domestic violence. There was however, no association between domestic violence and age, residential area, tribe, religion, marital status, educational level and occupation.The study also revealed that 283 (73.7 percent) of the respondents believed that a wife was justified to refuse to have sex with her husband compared with 101 (26.3 percent) who said that she was not justified. 139 (36.4 percent) respondents believed that a man was justified to beat his wife, while 243 (63.3 percent) did not. Although there was no association found between initiation ceremony in general and domestic violence, some issues that were taught during this ceremony were found to be associated with domestic violence. Being taught not to reveal domestic violence to outsiders was associated with domestic violence. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that respondents that were taught not to reveal domestic violence to outsiders were 33 percent less likely to experience domestic violence than respondents that were not taught. Alcohol consumption among the respondents' husbands/intimate partners was also associated with domestic violence. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that respondents that had husbands/intimate partners who took alcohol were 37 percent more likely to experience domestic violence than respondents that had husbands/intimate partners who did not take alcohol. Consideration should be given for routine screening for domestic violence in pregnancy to institute effective intervention strategies.
- Medicine