HIV and AIDS Risk awareness and sexual behavior among young women (15-24 years)in Mufulira urban
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The aim of the study was to determine HIV and AIDS risk awareness and sexual behavior among young women aged 15-24 years and factors that influence risky sexual behavior in Mufulira urban. The theoretical framework for this study is based on the Health Belief Model and the AIDS Risk Reduction Models. The Health Belief Model helps to understand human behavior in preventing the risk of HIV and AIDS where as the AIDS Risk Reduction Model provides a framework for explaining and predicting the behavior change efforts of individuals specifically in relationship to the sexual transmission of HIV and AIDS. A cross sectional study was conducted in a highly densely populated compound in Mufulira urban. The community was randomly selected using the rotary technique.Systematic sampling method was used to come up with individual respondents and a sample size of 70 women was selected. Data were collected using a structured interview schedule and a focus group discussion guide. Individuals for the focus group discussions were homogeneously selected by using purposive sampling method. Two focus group discussions were held, one involving the age group 15-19 years and the other one involving the age group 20-24 years. Epi-info version 6 and SPSS 12.0.1 for Windows software computer packages were used to analyze the data. Chi-Square was used to measure association between the dependent variable (HIV and AIDS Risk Awareness and Sexual Behavior) and the independent variables (knowledge of HIV and AIDS, economic status, level of education and cultural belief). The cut off point for statistical significance was set at 5%. A full report of the focus group discussions was written using participants' own words. Key statements, ideas and attitudes expressed for each topic of discussion were listed down. Data was coded, responses from different subgroups were compared and a summary was written in the narrative form. The most useful quotations that emerged from the discussion were selected to illustrate the main ideas. The study findings revealed high levels of HIV and AIDS knowledge (81%) and AIDS risk awareness (90%) among young women. Only 51.4% practiced safer sex. In this study, the most significant factors found to be associated with HIV and AIDS risk awareness and sexual behavior were level of education, level of knowledge and marital status. A significant association was found between level of education and level of knowledge of HIV and AIDS, 71.8%) of the respondents who had primary education or those who had never been to school (58%) were (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.93) (P value 0.043) less likely to have low or medium level of knowledge of HIV and AIDS. There was a significant association between level of knowledge and risk awareness. Significantly, more respondents with high knowledge (96.5%) were aware of the risk of HIV and AIDS than those with low or medium level of knowledge (61.5%) (P value = 0.001). Respondents who had low or medium level of knowledge were 53% (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) (P value = 0.050) less likely to practice safer sex. Furthermore, there was a significant association between marital status and sexual behavior as respondents who were single were 92% (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.15) (P value 0.016) less likely to practice safer sex.The results showed that factors such as age, level of education, and economic status were not significantly associated with HIV and AIDS risk awareness and sexual behavior.
- Nursing Sciences