An analysis of the implementation of reflective teaching methods in selected primary schools in Livingstone district of Zambia
The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of reflective teaching methods in Livingstone district of Zambia. The objectives of the study were to identify the forms of reflective teaching methods used by teachers, determine the implementation of reflective teaching methods in Schools and to establish factors which influence the implementation of reflective teaching methods. Data were collected from a total of hundred (100) respondents comprising of six (6)head teachers, two (2)deputy head teachers, six (4) senior teachers, 42 teachers, 46 pupils. Descriptive survey design was employed and data were collected using interviews, questionnaires, an observation checklist and document review. Stratified random sampling was used for the questionnaire respondents while purposive sampling was used to determine the teachers to be interviewed. The first major finding was related to forms of reflective teaching used by teachers. The forms of reflective teaching methods used by teachers were role play, mentoring, diaries, peer observation, continuing professional development meetings, storytelling, mind mapping and action research. The second finding was on the issue of the implementation of reflective teaching. Though most respondents indicated that they used written outline as opposed to mental outlines in the implementation, the data collected using observation showed the opposite as many used mental outlines. The third finding was on factors influencing implementation of reflective teaching. Pupils’ needs, administrative support, availability of space in the classroom, subject matter, and belief about teaching were the reasons teachers gave for implementing reflective teaching. The study found out that some factors hindered the implementation of reflective teaching methods. These were time limitations, curriculum needs and class size. Although teachers were aware of the importance and relevance of reflective teaching, observations showed that they had difficulties to practice the same in their classes due to limited time, curriculum needs, and class size. Finally, the majority of students said that though their teachers exhibited some forms of reflective teaching, they would want them to change the way they taught and give them more time to participate during lessons. Based on the findings, four major recommendations were made. First, this study established that teachers used only one quarter of the variety of forms that were available during the period of study. In order to establish whether or not teachers were conversant with the remaining forms, the study recommends a longitudinal study for more in-depth insight into reflection and its developmental process in further stages. Secondly, the study recommends that school administrators should find mechanisms of tracing reflectivity among teachers rather than just use teachers’ lesson plans. Thirdly, teacher Educators to provide short courses on reflective teaching and finally action research to be in the curriculum in all teacher training colleges of Education in Zambia.
- Education