An evaluation of the implementation of sanitation and hygiene programmes in Sinazongwe District, Zambia
A healthy living environment depends on adequate sanitation. Worldwide, about 1.1 billion people still defecate in the open, leaving their faeces on the ground to contaminate the surrounding environment. Sinazongwe District is faced with the problem of low access to adequate sanitation and hygiene facilities. This study evaluated the implementation of Sanitation and Hygiene Programmes in Sinazongwe District, Zambia. The study objectives were to identify households with improved sanitation facilities in Sinazongwe and to assess the households with improved hygienic practices. A sample of 60 households was purposively sampled and interviewed from two villages with regard to the available sanitation facilities. Views of different groups on the implementation of sanitation and hygiene programmes in the area were obtained from Focus Group Discussions. Key informants were also purposively selected to give information on the implementation of hygiene and sanitation programmes in the district. Analysis of data showed that 63 percent of the respondents had access to sanitation facilities while 37 percent did not have access to any sanitation facilities. The results also showed that only 14 (23%) households out of the sampled 60 households have access to improved sanitation facilities while 46 (77%) households had unimproved sanitation facilities. Out of 66 households visited, 22 households had pit latrines with a slab which meets the recommendation for an improved sanitation facility set by the Zambian government. The results also showed that 14 (23%) households had access to hand-washing facilities whereas 46 (76%) households had no access to hand-washing facilities. Of the 14 households with hand-washing facilities, only 9 (15%) had their hand-washing facilities supplied with soap. From the households interviewed, only 31.7 percent have elevated dish racks and 68.3 percent had no elevated dish racks. It was also found that only 18 (30%) of the households showed that they had a rubbish pit at their homes and 96.7 percent of them had access to bathing shelters. It is concluded that the Sinazongwe communities are making efforts to climb the sanitation ladder from having basic sanitation facilities to improved sanitation facilities. However, the communities are not doing well with hygiene practices especially hand-wash with soap or ash at critical times. It is therefore recommended for stakeholders to scale up efforts with the local leaders spearheading if Sinazongwe District has to meet the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030 to ensure access to sanitation for all. The government should devise firm and strict legislation and regulations for access to quality sanitation and hygiene services.
- Natural Sciences