Prospective observational study of blood transfusion practices and outcome at the University Teaching Hospital
Siamuyoba, Lawrence S
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To determine the incidence, common indications,appropriateness and outcome of blood transfusions and blood products among adult in-patients admitted to the University teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. Prospective observational study over a period of 90 days.The university Teaching Hospital and the Zambia National Blood Transfusion Services.Indications for blood transfusion, number of units prescribed and given, the age and sex of the transfusion recipients.All adult patients who received blood transfusion during the period of the study. Data collected by research assistant.Of the 378 requests for blood transfusion we followed up 149 such patients. These received at total of 271 units of blood. 75[27.6%] of the units were given to medical patients, 87[32.17o] to surgical patients and 113[41.3%] to patients from the department of obstetrics and Gynaecology. Females got twice as much blood as males, 67.3% compared to the male with only 32.7%. Most of the blood transfusions were given to patients between the ages of 23 and 42, receiving a total of 74% of the units of blood. 63% of these are less than 30 years of age. The most common indication for blood transfusion was indicated only as anemia. Up to 98% of patient receiving blood transfusion did not have hemoglobin done prior to transfusion. In the university teaching hospital of Lusaka,Zambia, more blood is used mainly in the department of obstetric and gynecology. It can also be concluded that demand for blood products is higher younger patients. It was observed that the use of blood and blood products is inappropriate in most cases as blood was given based on the clinical presence of pallor as a measure of anaemia.it is recommended that blood prescribers acquaint themselves with existing guidelines to avoid indiscriminate use of blood products. Careful evaluation of the risks and potential benefits of transfusion is required. All anemia, except in cases where it is life threatening, should be investigated adequately. Blood transfusion is no substitute for finding the cause of anaemia.