Representative bereaucracy in Zambia : problems of gender balancing in selected public organisations
Osafo, Dinah Dadzie.
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The theory of representative bureaucracy advocated as a panacea for bureaucratic isolationist tendencies and as a mechanism for ensuring bureaucratic responsiveness to client needs has in recent years gained popularity because of its inherent normative value for enhancing the recruitment and advancement/promotion opportunities^ of minority groups in public bureaucracy. In Zambia, however, various factors have been found to hinder the attainment of a gender-balanced public bureaucracy. Various deficiencies in the educational system in terms of gender representation and curricula -offerings and specializations are reflected in the numerical and sector representation of men and women. Selective recruitment policy based on the merit system is not without subjectivity; and societal values, conservative legislation which reinforce those values, women's extra-organisational roles all impinge on the bureacratic representation of women. Consequently, not only does the secondary position of women's careers persist but also the power differential existing between men and women in society is reflected and perpetuated in the hierarchies of the service.