The impact of Malaria Control Programmes in shanty compounds: the case of Zambia compound
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According to Africa Malaria Report, 2003, about 90% of all malaria deaths today occur in Africa, South of the Sahara. This is because the majority of infections in Africa are caused by Plasmodium Facciparum (PF), the most dangerous of the four human malaria parasites. It is also because the most effective malaria vector-the anopheles gambiae, is the most widespread in Africa and the most difficult to combat and control. An estimated one million people in Africa die from malaria each year and most of these are children under five years. Therefore, malaria is one of the most serious challenges to modern health care in the world. Inspite of the existence of the Malaria Control Programmes (MCPs) in Zambia, cases of malaria have continued to rise and occur on a large scale in the country. This clearly puts into question the relevance and effectiveness of the MCPs. This study was intended to answer the question: what has been the impact of MCPs? The general objective of this case study was to determine the extent of impact to which MCPs in the shanty compounds in Kafue have contributed to the prevention and control of malaria. The study universe was shanty compounds, but Zambia compound in Kafue district was chosen as a sample residential area, where a total of one hundred and eighty-nine (189) respondents were drawn. Cross tabulations and Chi-square tests were used to verify and examine the effects of different variables on malaria. Among the variables tested were Educational attainment, the use of Malaria Preventive Drugs, Council Residual Spraying and Awareness Campaigns. The tests were done at a coefficient correlation of 5% (0.05). Of the above variables tested, "Educational attainment" and "Awareness Campaign" proved not to affect malaria incidences at least with 95% confidence. On the other hand, Malaria Preventive Drugs and Council Residual spraying were both proved very effective in reducing malaria cases. The test on consumption of MPDs showed a chi-square value of 0.001, which is far below the coefficient correlation level (0.05) to prove the strong existence of the relationship. Council Residual Spraying equally showed a very small chi-square value of 0.002, leading to conclusions that Residual Spraying influences, to a larger extent, malaria incidence rates. Other than interventions by the council and health institutions, private remedies such as ordinary spray, mosquito coils etc are also used by individual households. Research findings on all private remedies showed their positive effect on reducing malaria incidences.