A cross-sectional study of the factors contributing to anaemia in pregnancy in women attending antenatal at Arakan Camp Hospital
Simapuka, Fanwell L
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Objective: To determine the factors contributing to anaemia in pregnancy at Arakan Camp Hospital.Design: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Arakan Camp Hospital between March 1999 and July 1999.Setting: Arakan Camp Hospital is situated in Arakan Barracks. It has a well established antenatal centre which is supported by the Ministry of Health.Subjects: 112 pregnant women of gestation age 20 weeks and above. With the majority (94%) being below the age of 35 years. Data was collected by questionnaire based on the variables in the study. Age, Husband's occupation, HIV status, worm infestation, malaria, UTH, Syphilis, sickle cell disease were the major variables measured in the study.Main out come: Association was found between HIV infection, malaria and anaemia. Anaemia was found to be more common among the younger age group.Results: A total number of 113 respondents were recruited for the study, lout of which 112 fully completed the questionnaires. One did not complete and was thus not included in the study. This gave a response of more than 80%. The respondents ranged between 16-46 years old. The majority being in the age group of 20 - 29 years old. Thirty of the women tested positive for HIV which gave a percentage of 26.8% compared to the Lusaka Sero-positive of 26.5%, 1997, Nine tested positive for syphilis, two had hookworms (Ascaris Lumbncoids), nine had urinanary tract infection ,Anaemia was more common in women below 25 years old with the majority being in age group 15-24 years old. Anaemia and HIV infection showed a strong positive association (OR2.5 (95%), CI 1.13<OR3.18P=0.04). Malana in pregnancy had a significant association with anaemia (OR 5.13, 95% CI 4.17 < OR < 6.16 P=0.006). Exposure to worms before was not statistically significant (P=0.50). Evidence of worms in stool was also not statistically significant (Fischer exact test. 1 tailed P value =0 40).Socio-economic status (P=1.00). Accessibility to MCH facility (P=0.312). For the two variables the association to anaemia in pregnancy was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: HIV infection and malaria appear to have significant association to anaemia in pregnancy in the subjects at Arakan Camp Hospital. The prevalence of worm infestation was found to be very Jew in this study, this could be due to the prevailing sanitary conditions in the barracks. Almost everybody useslatrines and wear shoes. Socio-economic status played a major role in anaemia during pregnancy due to the availability of free bags of mealie meal and an average income of K150,000 per family. This is not the case for the rest of the country. This little gain was however defeated by the prevalence HIV and malaria during pregnancy.