Effect of different priming agents on Germination, Emergence and yield performance of Bambara Groundnut Landraces
Mwale, Priscilla Katawa
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Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L.) Verde.) is an indigenous African Leguminous crop, cultivated mainly by small-scale farmers in Zambia. The crop is grown predominantly for human consumption although it has potential for use in animal feeds and in many farming systems for soil amendments and rotation. However, it s full potential has not been exploited in Zambia. Most varieties of the crop under cultivation in Zambia are characterized by low yields, poor agronomic characteristics and poor response to improved conditions. In addition, it exhibits slow and uneven germination both of which may lead to poor establishment and low yields. This problem has been overcome by priming in other crops. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different priming agents and priming temperature on germination rate, emergence and yield performance of different landraces of Bambara groundnuts. Three bambara groundnut landraces, identified by colour, were used in evaluation of the response to priming. A split –split plot design was used with three landraces (Brown, Red and Cream), two priming temperatures (100c and 150c) and three priming agents (Polyethylene glycol, potassium Nitrate and Potassium dehydrogen phosphate) and No priming (control). The germination parameters measured were time to 50% germination, rate of germination, final germination and germination synchrony. Time to 50% germination was reduced by priming in KNO3 and KH2PO4 but PEG had no effect. Germination rate was improved in KH2PO4 and PEG had no effect. Final germination percentage was not improved across landraces and priming agents. Priming had no effect on the germination synchrony. The above results indicate that the difference priming agents could not improve the germination of Bambara groundnuts landraces. The emergence parameters were similar to those for germination. Different priming agents did not improve time to 50% emergence of Bambara groundnuts. Similarly emergence rate, final emergence percentage and emergence synchrony was not improved. The yield attributes measured were number of stems per plant, number of branches per plant, number of nodes per plant, number of pods per plant, harvest index, 100 seed weight and grain yield. Priming across priming agents had significant effects on the 100 seed weight, harvest index and number of nodes per plant. Despite the differences in yield attributes, gain yield of Bambara groundnut was not affected by priming. This shows that Bambara groundnut is a staple crop but affected by the environment as reported in the earlier studies of stability in 1992/93 season.
SubjectBambara Groundnut Landraces
Effects of priming agents on Germination, emergence and field performance of Bambara Groundnut landraces
- Agricultural Sciences