Factors affecting pupil performance in grat-aided and non-grant aided Secondary Schools: A case of selected Secondary Schools in the Western Province of Zambia
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This study aimed at identifying factors affecting performance of learners in selected grant-aided and non-grant aided secondary schools in the Western Province of Zambia. The two schools that participated in the study were pseudo named Mungule High School (non-grant aided) and Munyama Secondary School (grant-aided). Teachers found in the two types of schools were, by and large, trained from the same teachers’ training colleges and universities. A case study design was used which combined qualitative and quantitative techniques of data collection and analysis. The target sample comprised teachers, pupils and school administrators of the selected schools. Other informants included Senior Education Standards Officers (SESO’s) from the Provincial Education Office in Mongu. The data were collected through questionnaires, interview schedules, Focus Group Discussions and analysis of documents. Qualitative data were analysed thematically through identification of themes that emerged from the data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.0) was used to generate descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages or tables. The study revealed that pupils from non-grant aided schools were under performing as compared to pupils from grant-aided schools. The unsatisfactory performance of pupils from non-grant aided schools was attributed to inadequate learning and teaching resources, over enrolment, demotivated teachers (low teacher morale), pupil indiscipline, teacher and pupil absenteeism, inactive INSET activities for teachers and lack of school academic policies among other factors.On the other hand, good performance in grant-aided secondary schools were attributed to adequate learning and teaching materials, high teacher morale (teacher motivation), strong school academic policies, high level of pupil discipline, controlled enrolment levels, prize giving ceremonies in recognition of outstanding pupil performance and close supervision of teachers and pupils among other factors. The study made the following recommendations: (a)The MOE should ensure that all secondary schools are well resourced in terms of teaching and learning materials.(b)The MOE in conjunction with the schools’ Boards/ PTA’s should find a way of raising teacher motivation and morale in schools.(c)Over enrolment should be discouraged in schools.(d)Absenteeism in schools involving pupils and teachers should be addressed by school managers(e)MOE should step up supervision of schools and take appropriate remedial measures to stop the deterioration of learning and teaching standards in schools.
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