The effectiveness of the permanent human rights commission in the enforcement of fundamental human rights and freedoms in Zambia
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As more and more countries take the decision to establish national human rights institutions, the need for guidelines on how such bodies can be created and operated for maximum effectiveness becomes increasingly evident1. National institutions are but one component of a complex, multi-level system which has been developed for the promotion and protection of human rights2. The international system relies heavily on the support it receives from regional human rights systems such as the African Union (AU) and the European Union (EU). Regional human rights systems play a pivotal role in reinforcing international standards and machinery by providing the means by which human rights concerns can be addressed within the particular social, historical and political context of the region concerned. However, there is a greater need for effective national institutions as there is a problem of implementation of international standards of human rights at national level. In Zambia the main national human rights institution is the Permanent Human Rights Commission (PHRC) which is established under Article 125 of the Constitution of Zambia3 and its functions and powers are contained in the Human Rights Commission Act No. 39 of 1996. This is the institution under review and discussion herein
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