Sero-prevalence and risk factors of foot and mouth disease in Goats in Ngamiland and North East Districts of Botswana
Raletobana, Juliah Gabasenye
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Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an economically and highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed domestic and wild animals. Although adult animals generally recover, the morbidity rate is high in naïve populations, and significant pain occurs in other species. A cross sectional study was conducted in the North East and Ngamiland districts of Botswana between September and November 2012, to determine the sero-prevalence and identify potential risk factors associated with FMD in goats. Results of the study showed that out of the 640 goats sampled, 238 animals tested positive for FMD virus antibodies in the two study areas representing an overall sero-prevalence of 37.2% (95%, CI =33.43-40.94). In Ngamiland district the sero-prevalence was 25.2% (95%, CI= 20.74-29.67), while in the North East district, the sero-prevalence was 53.09% (95%, CI=47.17-59.01). There was a significant difference in sero-prevalence between the two study areas (p<0.01). Variations were also observed in the sero-prevalence of the disease among the villages. Antibodies to all the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes were detected in the goats in the study areas.Variables that were found to be important predictors of goats being sero-positive to FMD were age and district (location). It was found that goats from Ngamiland district were 0.298 (95%, CI=0.213-0.416) times less likely to be sero-positive for FMDV antibodies than those from the North East district (p<0.01). Adult goats were found to be 1.327 times more likely to be sero-positive than weaner goats (p = 0.006) while kids were found to be 4.744 (95%, CI=2.194-10.257) times more likely to be sero-positive than weaners (p < 0.01).These results show that FMD is prevalent in goats in Botswana and that goats may play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. It is therefore, recommended that this animal species should also be included in the routine vaccination programmes against FMD.