The syntax and semantics of And-Coordination in Kaonde
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This study examined the nature of and-coordination in Kaonde. In order to meet this goal, the study sought, firstly, to identify conjuncts that are coordinated by and-equivalent in Kaonde. Secondly, the study sought to identify and-coordinators in Kaonde. That is, it tried to identify coordinators in Kaonde that are equivalent to ‘and’ in English. From the study, it was observed that Kaonde has two (2) forms or variants of the coordinator ‘and’. These include; ne and kabiji. Thirdly, the study sought to examine how and when the coordinators ne and kabiji are used in Kaonde. From the data collected (through desk research, introspection and simple phrase lists) and analyzed, it was observed that coordinators are used whenever one needs to connect or link two or more linguistic units. The syntactic analysis of and-coordination in Kaonde was done using the X-bar theory of Government and Binding theory while descriptive linguistics was employed to account for the semantic aspect of the study. In addition, the study examined the nature of coordinate structures in Kaonde. It was observed that a coordinate structure is usually made up of at least two conjuncts and a conjunction. The conjuncts are conjoined together by a conjunction to form one larger linguistic unit of the same kind. Further, it was observed that conjunctions play a very important role in ensuring that coordinated meaning is expressed. The study explored semantic functions of and-coordination in Kaonde. It was observed that and-coordination denotes a relationship between and/or among conjuncts in a sentence. The conjunctions may show a cause and effect relationship between conjuncts. They are also used to show chronological sequence, contrast, condition or simply addition. Thus, by linking conjuncts in a coordinate structure, they establish relationships that otherwise are not easy to understand. In relation to the theoretical framework, the indication is that X-bar theory of Government and Binding theory does apply to coordinate structures in Kaonde. With regard to the findings, one would suggest that more research should be undertaken to analyse coordination as a whole in Kaonde. That is, analysing coordination which covers all coordinators which include; or and but. Lastly, there is need also to analyse possible coordinate structure constraints in Kaonde.