Assessment of Gender Mainstreaming in water and sanitation-A case of the Ministry of Local Government and Housing
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Basing on government‟s efforts of advocating for gender mainstreaming in the public sector as a way of addressing problems of gender inequality and enhancing human development, the study assessed to what extent the water and sanitation sector has mainstreamed gender, investigated how the objectives of the National Strategy for Gender Mainstreaming have been achieved through policies and implementation of programmes, identified the gaps in gender mainstreaming, provided more knowledge on gender mainstreaming in the public service and has shown government‟s effort to mainstream gender in the sector. The main objective of this study was to assess the extent to which gender had been mainstreamed in the Water Supply and Sanitation sector and examine to what extent the planed strategies had been implemented in order to develop interventions that will overcome barriers preventing implementation of gender programmes and activities in Water and Sanitation sector. Specific objectives were to examine the extent to which gender concerns were incorporated in policies, programmes and activities in Water and Sanitation sector, assess the extent to which the concept of gender mainstreaming has been grasped by staff members, assess how much resources are allocated for gender mainstreaming and to identify challenges faced by the water and sanitation sector in mainstreaming gender. Forty (42) respondents that deal with Water and Sanitation Services and Gender Mainstreaming were selected. Questionnaires were distributed to available staff together with in-depth interviews conducted. Data was coded and analysed based on emerging issues. To compliment primary data, secondary data was gathered through documents like policies, strategic plans and reports. The non-probability sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study, because not all respondents had equal chances of being selected. Only departments dealing with either Water Supply and Sanitation Service or those with expertise of Gender Mainstreaming was selected. Purposive sampling method was used. Qualitative method was used to collect data in order to produce evidence which led to understanding of the case being studied and answering the study questions. Use of multiple techniques helped to strengthen the opportunity for triangulation. Findings were that not so much has been done regarding implementation of the concerns raised in National Strategy for Gender Mainstreaming (2000) such as incorporation of these concerns. Knowledge of the concept of gender and gender mainstreaming is low, lack of capacities for mainstreaming gender, low representation of women in decision making, lack of clear guidelines for gender budgeting and weak institutional framework for gender mainstreaming among stakeholders. The WSS sector has not formulated the institutional policy for gender mainstreaming hence lack of implementation for gender mainstreaming.