The association of vector control by indoor residue spraying and insect treated nets, with the prevelance of malaria in Luapula Province,Zambia: A retrospective analysis of surveillance data
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Malaria remains a serious epidemic trait in Luapula province. To appropriately target the interventions to substantially reduce the current disease burden, there is need to assess the impact of the vector control measures such as Indoor Residue Spraying (IRS) and Insecticide treated nets(ITNs). Surveillance data forms a basis for monitoring the impact of control activities. The aim of this study was to assess whether there has been an association between vector control measures by IRS and ITNs, and the prevalence of malaria through the review of retrospective data. METHODOLOGY Data was extracted from Zambia Health Management Information system (ZHMIS), and the Malaria indicator surveys. Descriptive statistics were computed to determine malaria distribution in Luapula province and time series analysis were run to assess the trends of malaria morbidity and mortality, and then finally to assess the association of the IRS and ITNs with the prevalence of Malaria in Luapula province. RESULTS Malaria burden was found highest in Mwense district (55% prevalence) and lowest in Chienge district (19% prevalence) in the period, 2010-2015. There was a 40% increase in the prevalence of malaria in Luapula province from 2010 to 2015. IRS coverage, ITN coverage and ITN usage has been on the increase since 2010. There has been a 31% increase in ITN coverage, a 72% increase in ITN usage, and a 71% increase in IRS coverage, from 2010 to 2015. CONCLUSION Malaria prevalence was continuously increasing from the year 2010 to 2014, despite the increase in the both the interventions. However, the up-scale of in ITN usage in 2015 and the continued steady increase in IRS coverage related with the sharp decrease in malaria prevalence observed in 2015. KEYWORDS: Malaria, Prevalence, Vector control, Indoor residue spraying, Insecticide treated nets.
University of Zambia