Factors Hindering Teachers of English Language From Implementing Communucative Language Teaching (CLT) Approach : A Case of Selected Secondary Schools In Chongwe District,Zambia
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English Language teaching has undergone noticeable pedagogical changes over time. From the late 1960s hitherto, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Approach has been adopted for use in the syllabi of English as Foreign Language (EFL) as well as English as Second Language (ESL) contexts. The study explored the implementation of CLT in Public Secondary Schools of Chongwe District. The purpose of the study was to establish why teachers of English Language were not implementing CLT. Mixed Method Approach was used and a case study in this regard applied. The findings of the study from the first objective, which aimed at assessing teachers’ understanding of CLT revealed that teachers had scanty ideas that CLT aims at making learners attain communicative competence even though, all the fourty one (100%) teachers under study could not give a comprehensive theoretical account of CLT. The study also showed that thirty-one (75.6%) teachers held misconceptions while ten (24.4) could not state what CLT was. The findings of the second objectives, which aimed at exploring the extent to which CLT was absent in English Language lessons showed that CLT to a large extent was absent in all the lessons observed. Structural lessons dominated and these were explicitly taught outside meaningful language tasks. All the lessons were organised around teacher centred, whole class pedagogical activities without any noticeable form of communicative activities and CLT instructional procedures. The study also showed that the text based course books used in the schools under study to teach English Language were pedagogical in nature and no authentic materials were used in all the lessons observed. The findings of the last objective, which intended to establish the factors hindering teachers from implementing CLT revealed factors such as inadequate pre-service training, insufficient funding to support CLT, large classes, negative attitude of the teacher toward CLT, from-based examinations and pupils’ low English proficiency to be among other factors hindering teachers from implementing CLT. The study provided a range of practical recommendations that included among others the need for the trainers of teachers of English Language to be practical and not theoretical in their training. It was also recommended that teachers of English Language be sensitised so that they are aware of the pedagogical requirements of the syllabi and also that monitoring of teachers by standard officers should be effectively done and there should be increased funding to schools, the Department of Literature and Languages in particular so that equipment and materials to support CLT is procured.
University of Zambia
A thesis in Education