Effects of code-switching in grade eight mathematics teaching among biliguals in Lusaka, Zambia
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This study sought to determine whether teaching Mathematics using Code-Switching mediated instruction (CSMI) would improve pupils’ achievement more than using traditional English mediated instruction (TEMI). The objectives of the study were to: 1) determine whether there is a difference in achievement between pupils taught using CSMI and those taught using TEMI; 2) establish the influence of pupil-level characteristics on CSMI and TEMI in facilitating Mathematics achievement; and 3) assess specific content areas which statistically significantly affect overall Mathematics achievement for CSMI and TEMI. A non-equivalent control group design was adopted over 209 Grade Eight pupils, selected through convenient sampling of naturally occurring classes, 104 were in the experimental group and 105 were in the control group. Data was collected through the pre-test (α = 0.82) and the post-test (α = 0.88) with 10 weeks treatment. During treatment the experimental group was taught using CSMI and the control group continued using TEMI. Data was statistically analyzed through Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Multiple Linear Regression to determine differences in achievement means and variances between the respective groups. MANOVA results demonstrated a statistically significant mean difference in achievement between the groups. Pupils taught using CSMI achieved better than those taught using TEMI. Regression results on pupil-level characteristics revealed that gender and class attendance had positive influence on CSMI but grade repetition had negative influence, whereas only class attendance, with a smaller beta coefficient, had positive influence on TEMI. Regression results on specific Mathematics content areas indicated that whilst Coordinates and Angles were significant for CSMI, only Coordinates, with a smaller beta coefficient, was significant for TEMI. Generally, the study established that CSMI was more effective in Mathematics teaching than TEMI. Its use was more effective with all pupil-level characteristics, except grade repetition; and it facilitated performance on specific Mathematics content areas better than the latter. Therefore, the use of Code-Switching was recommended in teaching bilingual pupils who were less competent both in Mathematics and English language.
The University of Zambia
- Education