Implications of conversion of customary land tenure to leasehold tenure on the livelihoods of rural people in Chibombo and Chongwe districts,Zambia 2017
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The aim of this study was to examine the implications of the conversion of customary land tenure to leasehold tenure on rural livelihoods in Chibombo and Chongwe districts by drawing on a comparative approach. In particular, the study was conducted in three chiefdoms namely; Bunda Bunda and Nkomeshya chiefdom in Chongwe district and in Chibombo district, it was conducted in Mungule chiefdom. The objectives of the study were; to compare the pattern of tenure conversion in the study areas, to find out factors influencing the conversion of customary land tenure to leasehold tenure, to examine how the study areas respond to pressures associated with the conversion of customary land tenure to leasehold tenure and to examine how the conversion of customary land tenure affect the farm based livelihood of rural people. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Under quantitative methods, a questionnaire survey was conducted and data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics. For the survey, 50 respondents were selected from Chibombo district and 35 respondents from Chongwe district. The survey targeted villagers (local people) in the three study chiefdoms. Under qualitative methods, Focus Group Discussions and interviews were used. The data collected was analysed thematically. The results of the study showed that both areas experience land pressures but differ in the way they respond. Mungule and Bunda Bunda chiefdom have open up their land for conversion of customary land tenure to leasehold tenure. While, this is not the case in Nkomeshya chiefdom. Traditional leaders in Nkomeshya chiefdom forbids the conversion of customary tenure to leasehold tenure. This study also revealed that enhanced tenure security, increased land pressures and need to increase investment influence the conversion of customary tenure to leasehold tenure. The findings further revealed that conversion of customary land tenure to leasehold tenure has both negative and positive implications. In terms of positive implications, conversion of customary land tenure has brought about micro, small and medium businesses. These businesses have created employment opportunities for the local people in the area. The negative implications of customary tenure conversion includes reduced size of land owned, increased boundary conflicts and weakening social cohesion.
The University of Zambia