Inclusiveness of urban land governance in the city of Lusaka, Zambia
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Many cities in developing countries are experiencing urbanization characterised by the continuous proliferation of informal settlements. Thus, this study assessed the inclusiveness of land administration in the City of Lusaka. It was guided by three objectives: to determine the inclusiveness of the city’s land administration system; to assess the roles of stakeholders in promoting an inclusive land administration system and to examine how the land administration system in the City of Lusaka has influenced the development of informal settlements in the city. To achieve these objectives, in-depth interviews, interview schedules and a review of documentary sources served as research methods. The sample comprised of 10 key informants purposively selected from government institutions/civil society organisations and 60 respondents conveniently drawn from informal settlements. The resulting data were analysed thematically and using descriptive statistics. The study findings revealed that land administration in the City of Lusaka is not inclusive, due to the prevailing unclear land laws and processes, a poor land information management system, an ineffective dispute resolution mechanism, inadequate public participation in land related processes, unaffordable land premiums and public officials not performing their duties diligently and impartially. The study findings further revealed that civil society organisations’ roles in land administration include advocating for pro-poor land, housing and planning policies, raising community awareness, researching on emerging pressing issues and holding public entities to account. However, these efforts have not been consistent as they are hindered by authoritarian political control and limited human and financial resources, among others. The study also found that the development of informal settlements is a result of bottlenecks in land delivery and planning legislations and poor coordination among government entities responsible for land governance. These difficulties have been exacerbated by inadequate human/financial resources, the politicising of the land sector and Bureaucratic red-tape. Therefore, the study suggests a preventative approach in dealing with the problems noted by resolving challenges of inconsistent legal and institutional frameworks, developing a pro-poor land development policy and putting in place regulations to support the Lands Act of 1995, developing mechanisms of sanctioning and holding erring officers to account. To achieve sustainable development goal number 11(making cities and communities sustainable) ) in Zambia requires more research on tenure responsive land use planning in order to understand existing community dynamics (including economic and social support networks) and implementing practical changes in tackling informality.. This is because land administration problems manifest themselves after a substantial period. Key Words: Urban, Land Governance, Inclusiveness, City of Lusaka.
The University of Zambia