Demonstration of presence of human helminthes and protozoa in faecal matter from pit latrines of selected residential compounds in Lusaka, Zambia
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The peri-urban on-site sanitation has unique challenges such as: lack of space and resources to construct new pit latrines. To ensure sustainability, the emptying of filled pit latrines is necessary. However, handling faecal matter especially if contaminated is risky. An assessment for helminthes and Protozoa was undertaken on faecal matter from four peri-urban areas of Lusaka, Zambia namely: Kanyama, Madimba, George and Chaisa compounds. The study aimed at finding out whether pit latrine faecal matter is contaminated with helminth ova, larvae and protozoan oocysts. Laboratory examinations through the Ammonium bicarbonate (AMBIC) method; Crystal violet stain and Cryptosporidia species recovery technique detected the presence, type, and viability of ova, larva and oocysts. Data was analysed by excel sheets and the use of statistical paired sample t-tests. It was established that 96% of Kanyama Compound pit latrines had Cryptosporidia species oocysts; 60% had Ascaris species ova which were viable in 4% of the pit latrines. Whereas 20% had Enterobius species ova and 16% had Strongyloides species larva. It was observed, 96% of George Compound pit latrines had Cryptosporidia species oocysts and 68% had Ascaris species ova which were viable in 48% of the pit latrines. Whereas 4% had Enterobius species ova and 4% had Strongyloides species larva. It was noted that 92% of Madimba Compound pit latrines had Cryptosporidia species oocysts and 40% had Ascaris species ova which were viable in 20% of the pit latrines. Whereas 8% had Enterobius species ova; 40% had Cyclospora species and 16% had Strongyloides species larva. Further, it was observed that 96% of Chaisa Compound pit latrines had Cryptosporidia species oocysts and 56% had Ascaris species ova which were viable in 36% of the pit latrines. Whereas 4% had Enterobius species ova and 8% had Strongyloides species larva. Using Ascaris species as indicator parasite, George Compound was the most affected by the parasites as it indicated a highest number of pit latrines with Ascaris species ova with high viability although it showed only 4 types followed by Kanyama Compound despite registering 11 types of parasites. Madimba compound indicated 9 types and Chaisa compounds had 4 types. The four compounds had a substantial enumeration of ova and oocysts with top sludge showing large numbers that reduced with depth. The t-test for paired samples showed that for Chaisa and George compounds, only Ascaris species varied in the mean concentration of top and bottom layer samples; George and Madimba compounds samples only varied in Cryptosporidia species; whereas Kanyama Compound samples showed no variation at all. Faecal matter was found to be contaminated with helminth and protozoa especially in the top layer sand hence not safe to public health, groundwater and the general environment. Key words: Helminth, Protozoa, Faecal matter, Public health and Groundwater.
The University of Zambia
SubjectGround water pollution--Zambia
- Mines