Teachers Understanding and Attitudes Towards Inductive and Deductive Approaches to Teaching Social Sciences
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Social science teachers in secondary schools apply a variety of teaching approaches in their day to day teaching and learning processes. Such approaches are meant to achieve effective teaching and learning. Effective teaching refers to teachers accomplishing their planned goals and assigned tasks in accordance with the curriculum objectives. Therefore, the study investigated the use of deductive and inductive methods in teaching social science subjects in secondary schools, specifically history and civic education. The authors are aware that a distinction between deductive and inductive methods is not easy to sustain because the two concepts are usually driven by the ideological strands. While, there is no agreed upon standard of teaching history and civic education in schools, it is important that this paper attempts to understand the teaching instructions or approaches that are normally applied in the schools. The study was conducted during the time when the association was having their quarterly workshops in Kafue District of Zambia. In trying to demonstrate how the two methods could be used in social science subjects in schools, the study applied Basil Bernstein’s vertical and horizontal discourse. The study was mainly qualitative in nature and participants were drawn through the use of purposive sampling technique. Data was collected through focus group discussions as well as an unstructured open ended interview guide and the taking down of interview notes. The results from the study shows that social science teachers in schools understood the epistemology of deductive and inductive approaches but are not following the correct procedures in the utilisation of the two concepts when teaching. It was also noted that some teachers did utilise the two methods while others were not applying them. The study further noted that some teachers had a negative attitude towards deductive methods as opposed to inductive methods. The study concludes that generally, teachers of social science subjects in schools did not have the grip on deductive and inductive methods.
Multidisciplinary Journal of Language and Social Sciences Education, Vol 1, No.2,