Evaluating stakeholder participation in planning for sustainable tourism development in Kasama and Shiwa Ng’andu districts in the Northern Tourism circuit, Zambia.
MetadataShow full item record
The Zambian government has recognised tourism as a major contributing sector towards economic development. In order to attain sustainable tourism development, the Zambian government enacted the 2015 Hospitality and the Tourism Act and formulated Tourism Policy which have both recognised the engagement of various players (stakeholders) in tourism planning, development and project implementation. The development of tourism in Zambia has not reached its full potential due to inadequate and non-transparent involvement of stakeholders in tourism planning.However, far too little attention has been paid to ascertain the level of stakeholder participation in planning for sustainable tourism development in Kasama and Shiwa Ng’andu Districts.The study used a case study research design with a qualitative research approach. Constructivism/Interpretivism paradigm guided this study. Purposive, snowball and convenient sampling techniques were used to select 55 participants. An interview guide, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and an Observation check list were instruments used to collect primary data. The results showed that58.8 % of respondents mentioneda cultural market, 20.6% mentionedart theatre, 11.8 % mentioned additional archaeological sites, 5.9% mentioned game viewing, 2.9% boat cruising and hiking trails as notable tourism potentials at Chishimba falls, Mwela Rocks and Shiwa Ng’andu. Furthermore; the study demonstrated that the level of tourism development is low due to low investment, poor marketing strategies, limited tourism packages and poor transport connectivity among sites. The results suggests that top down approaches dominates tourism planning which excludes the majority of stakeholders from participating in tourism planning processes. This hinders attainment of sustainable tourism development. The results of the study further show that the level of stakeholder’s participation in tourism planning was more of tokenistic (minimal) and displayed some elements of passive (non- participation). Furthermore, the study revealed options for increased stakeholder’s participation in tourism planning as stakeholder’s sensitization, stakeholder’s empowerment, active tourism associations, provision of questionnaires and having a Visitor information website. The study concludes that there is minimum participation, engagement and involvement of stakeholders in planning for sustainable tourism development in Kasama and Shiwa Ng’andu Districts in the Northern tourism circuit which has slowed the growth and development of tourism industry in the region.Acollaborative and participatory mix of bottom up and top down approaches to planning is recommended for effective stakeholder’s participation. Furthermore, a mix of bottom up and top down approachesto planning can be actualised through a “collaboration framework”whichhas been formulated and proposed by this study. This can be adopted by government for attainment of sustainable tourism development as it will increase effective collaboration, linkages and participation of various stakeholders in tourism planning, development and project implementation and also it will enhance forward and backward linkages in the tourism industry. Key Words: Stakeholders,Collaboration, Tourism Planning, Bottom up, Sustainable tourism
University of Zambia
- Natural Sciences