Lesson preparation for inclusive teaching of learners with disabilities from grade 1 to 7 at Kankumba primary school in Rufunsa district, Zambia.
Nsofwa, Lawrence Malata
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The study sought to investigate lesson preparation for inclusive teaching of learners with disabilities at Kankumba Primary School in Rufunsa, Zambia. The study used a theoretical framework of social disability model by Rieser (2000). The study was a case study design and it employed qualitative approach to collect data. A sample size comprised 18 participants that were categorized as follows: The Head teacher (1), Parents (5), Class Teachers (6), children with disabilities (6). The participants were all selected through purposive sampling. The following instruments were used in data collection: Interview guide, Focus Group Discussion guide, and observation checklist and document analysis. Data collected was analyzed using thematic analysis. This involved coding of the data to generate the emerging themes. The major findings of the study revealed that teachers did not prepare lessons inclusively because some of the contents were left out, such as Individualized Education Activities. It was also discovered that teachers do not plan for methods that include learners such as demonstration and group work instead only lecture method appeared frequently on lesson plans. Limited teaching and learning aids were recorded on lesson plans and also the criteria used to form groups were not indicated for instance, gender, performance and age group. Types of rewards given to pupils with disabilities who performed well were not recorded on lesson plans. Lack of pupil interaction in inclusive setting contributed significantly to poor academic performance of pupils. The findings further revealed that lack of proper inclusive lesson delivery and inclusive lesson preparation was exacerbated by lack of knowledge on inclusive lesson preparation by teachers. Inclusive approach calls for schools to make appropriate Curriculum changes to the learning so that each classroom in a school is able to address learning needs of all children, including those with disabilities (MOGE, 1996). An inclusive education requires good lesson preparation by teachers and involves putting in order all relevant materials considering the concepts of adaptation, accommodation and modification (Muzata and Mahlo, 2020). However, it appears that the aspect of inclusive lesson preparation for learners with disabilities has not been taken seriously and this could be the major contributing factor to poor performance. The study thus recommended that: school administrators should monitor inclusive lesson preparations done by teachers. The government, using expert lecturers in teaching methods, should organize seminars or in-service training to train all teachers how to prepare inclusive lesson plans; school administrators should allow class teachers and students to use teaching and learning materials so that students could also participate in lesson preparation.
SponsorshipThe University of Zambia
The University of Zambia