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Performance analysis of VOIP codec schemes and queuing techniques and their impact on FTP and video conferencing.
(The University of Zambia., 2024) Munthali, Emma
Advancement in internet technology allows for the integration of network traffic i.e data, video and voice into a single network. This technology offers many benefits but also presents some challenges. Real time traffic services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and video require certain Quality of Service (QoS) from the network which cannot be guaranteed on the internet therefore, maintaining the right QoS parameters becomes all the more important. Studies have been carried out on the effect of congestion management tools while others compare the effects of such tools on the quality of VoIP. However, in reality, these tools are not used in isolation in a network and most networks do not support single traffic only. The goal of this research therefore is to compare the effects of the combinations of some of these tools (i.e queuing techniques and codec schemes) on the quality of VoIP and to determine their influence on the rest of the traffic on a network. Simulation approach using the OPNET Modeler 14.5 tool was used to simulate a network supporting three different types of traffic namely: FTP traffic, Video conferencing traffic and VoIP traffic. While maintaining the same topology and traffic of the network, G711 and G729 codec schemes and queuing techniques namely; First in First out (FIFO), Priority Queuing (PQ), Custom Queuing (CQ) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) were tested resulting in different scenarios. Custom Queuing technique showed the best performance overall except for the amount of video conferencing traffic received where it had the worst performance. WFQ and FIFO suffered the highest delay for video and VoIP traffic respectively while FTP traffic suffered from starvation in PQ. The graphs were observed to follow the same pattern regardless of the codec scheme used however, G729 performed the better of the two as it produced higher throughputs and slightly lower delays compared to G711. G729 would best be used for low bandwidth networks while G711 would be ideal for networks with higher bandwidths and where VoIP communication is the main priority.
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Access to sexual reproductive health services among HIV positive adolescents attending university teaching hospital (UTH) – PCOE (Pediatric Center of Excellence) Lusaka-Zambia.
(The University of Zambia., 2019) Ndongmo, Therese Ntigwa
An estimated 80,000 adolescents (10-19 years) are living with HIV in Zambia (UNICEF, 2011). As they mature into adulthood, adolescents encounter challenges related to sexuality and sexual reproductive health (SRH), coupled with dealing with a complex condition such as HIV infection. The current study aimed at exploring the experience, challenges and barriers encountered by adolescents in accessing reproductive health services at the Pediatric Center Of Excellence (PCOE) - University Teaching Hospital (UTH). It is hypothesized that adolescents living with HIV are also beginning to experience their sexuality, may have some challenges in accessing SRH services. The study was conducted using a mixed-method whereby adolescents aged 15-19 years were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire, about their needs and access to SRH. Services offered at the study setting (UTH PCOE) were also investigated through key informants’ in-depth interviews of healthcare workers. Emerging themes from open-ended questions qualitative data were explored using content analysis. The data was entered into an access database and exported to SPSS for analyses. Ethical clearance was obtained from the UNZABREC. A total of 148 adolescents aged 15-19 years were interviewed, including 63.5% females and 36.5% males. The majority (77%) had secondary education level. Those currently in school were 77.2%. About 68.9 % expressed intention to have children; 40.1 % admitted to having a boy or girl friends. Overall 15.1 % (21/139) have ever had sex. Of those sexually experienced, only 61.1 % reported consistent condom use. Two (2.1%) of the girls had been pregnant before. Ten out of 52 respondents indicated having had an STI before. Not being in school was found to be a positive predictor, not only for knowing where to go to talk about sex (OR= 2.53; 95% CI:1.10-5.82; p=0.02), but also for having ever gone to seek advice on sexual issues (OR=2.61; 95% CI:1.04-6.58; p=0.03). While SRH services are available, although not covering the full spectrum of needs at the PCOE, healthcare workers expressed challenges in terms of time and resources dedicated to these services. Overall access to SRH services (at least a counseling, FP, or STI service) was 31.5% in terms of availability and utilization combined. There was no significant factor that predicted access or not. We find evidence of reported “sexuality experience” illustrated by their expressed sexual desire and needs, presence of social friendships, and desire to have healthy children. HIV infected adolescent sexual reproductive needs were found to be similar to those of general population of the same age in terms of counseling in sexual matters, Family Planning (FP) and Sexual Transmitted Infection (STI) services. ALHIV face additional challenges within their family and social environments. This suggests that efforts should be made to provide one-stop center for all adolescent overall health care needs and to create an environment that is more aware, responsive, and tolerant of adolescent sexuality not only at tertiary but also a lower levels of healthcare settings. HCWs are available at the UTH PCOE to provide the services but still face challenges in terms of adequate training, time and recourses dedicated to these services.
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Investigation of how operational and climatic factor affect PV-grid tied inverter: a case study of Ethiopia and Zambia.
(The University of Zambia., 2023) Redate, Shawell Endalamaw
Zambia and Ethiopia are two countries from southern and eastern of Africa due to their geographical location and other factor the environment condition is different. The research aims to Investigation how operational and climatic factor affect PV-grid tied inverter. In Zambia the study focused on the two main solar plants which is under ZESCO national grid at malty facility zone (MFZ), the first one is the 54 megawatts Bangweulu solar power plant, second one is 34MW Ngonye solar photovoltaic (PV) plant. In Ethiopia eight min off-grid site under Ethiopian Electric Utility (EEU) is included. Beltu, Behima, Mino, Ungoge, Korhele,Tum, Omorate and Kofetu. A survey is conducted how operational and climatic factor affect PV-grid tied inverter (GTI) in the above-mentioned area. Using Microsoft excel the environmental \climate condition, Solar radiation, Air temperature and Rain falls of the two country Zambia and Ethiopia is investigated and analysed for each selected site. A questionnaire and a Simi-structure interview are conducted. The basic inverter challenges are investigated from the collected data and the problem is analyzed based on the specific inverter data sheet. The data sheets of the inverter for each site under this study are attached. Environmental condition affects almost all solar plant sites which are under this study. The temperature of Lusaka is higher than Addis Ababa by 5.63°C and even in the plant under this study; temperature rise is one of the challenges on the inverter performance, sensitive electronic component bent due to excessive temperature. On the other side in Ethiopia Addis Ababa excessive rain affect the inverter. Addis Ababa has about 1.32 times more rainfall than Lusaka, (Addis Ababa’s 79.54mm vs Lusaka’s average of 60.34mm). For that reason, most of the inverter in Ethiopia on the mini off-grid site is affected by heavy rain condition. Finally, the real-time performance of the inverter of the off-grid PV mini-grid system installed in a small remote town in Ethiopia is analyzed using measured meteorological data. From on- grid and off-grid inverter performance challenges, which the researcher collected from different plant the main ones are climate or environmental effect and also over load. Overload is one of the frequent challenges in koftu, behama and amorita this can be due to high population growth and unexpected power demand from the community.
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Design and implement a crop management system for farmers in Chongwe district of Zambia.
(The University of Zambia., 2024) Chikanwa, Gregory Kakoma
This article highlights the important role of agricultural extension services for Zambian farmers, despite challenges in reaching remote areas. The government of the republic of Zambia has been using ICT to provide rural and remote farmers with e-Extension services through the Ministry of Agriculture website to help in agricultural planning. This application supplements traditional methods, offering a comprehensive solution to enhance crop production in Chongwe District. The growth of Zambia's agriculture sector relies on timely detection and treatment of crop diseases, with the support of agriculture extension officers but the services were hindered by impact COVID-19's. Zambia's government is countering this by adopting electronic extension services, supported by provision of e-Extension services. Insufficient extension officers and reduced funding lead to inadequate support for farmers in Chongwe District. Additionally, the existing e-extension portal currently being used lacks user-friendliness and comprehensive data, which affects crop management. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a crop management system that will support agriculture production in Chongwe District, providing expert information on crop production and management. The study examined how extension officers in Chongwe district deliver services to remote farmers, assessing current e-extension services' effectiveness and seeking ways to improve user experience. The literature review provided a historical overview of farming practices and explored web-based extension services' emergence, comparing various mobile applications being used by farmers. However, limitations in existing systems, such as lack of comprehensive information and focus on specific crops, were identified. The efforts to enhance extension services in Zambia using technology, that addresses issues like crop management and disease were identified. Studies identified the integration of video tutorials into e-extension services was for agricultural education and training. Videos offer visual demonstration, efficient learning, and standardization of information, improving adoption of best practices among farmers. Embracing digital solutions like mobile applications and video tutorials enhances agricultural extension services, increasing crop production and supporting farmers' livelihoods. Recent developments in Precision Agriculture (PA) sparked academic interest in Farming Management Information Systems (FMIS), aiming to boost efficiency. Research focuses on Decision Support Systems (DSS), computational models, and systems which are user friendly. Usability is key for adoption, however designing user interfaces faces challenges due to dispersed end-users with limited IT expertise. Microservice architecture suggests use of agile methodology to develop FMIS. Agile ethodologies enable swift adaptation to dynamic conditions, fostering communication and collaboration among stakeholders. Developers use Agile methodology to create applications in short bursts, focusing on developing, coding, and testing features to deliver a usable product at the end of each sprint. In the System Development Process, requirements analysis involves meetings with agricultural experts to understand existing systems and define scope. In this study the researcher held meetings with the agriculture extension experts from the ministry of to develop a new system for the farmers in Chongwe with features user-friendly interfaces, multimedia integration, mobile accessibility, and tailored content for local farmers, bridging the gap between tradition farming and the use of ICT to enhance productivity and farmers livelihoods.
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HIV testing and associated factors among male long-distance truck drivers in Zambia.
(The University of Zambia, 2019) Mutale, Lwito Salifya
Globally, truckers have been reported to have an important role in the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Evidence on uptake of HIV testing among this key population is not well established. We examined factors associated with HIV testing among male long-distance truck drivers (LDTDs) since HIV testing has been found to be an integral part of the preventive strategies. A cross sectional study was conducted among male LDTDs using secondary data from the 2015 Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS). The BSS was carried out in 5 of the 10 Corridors of Hope (COH) III project sites (Livingstone/Kazungula, Solwezi, Kapiri Mposhi, Chipata and Chirundu). The study recruited LDTDs from truck depots, border sites, Zambia Revenue Authority offices and those parked along the road. Face-to-face structured interviews were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing, HIV risk behaviors and knowledge towards HIV/AIDS. Multivariable logistic regression was done to improve predictive power and control for confounders. A total of 1,406 male LDTDs were included in the study, with age range 18-70 and mean age of 21 (± 0.2). Over 80% reported being currently married and living with spouse while 94% reported having only one wife. Uptake for ever having tested for HIV among LDTDs was 83%, while 39% were circumcised. Positive predictors for HIV testing included circumcision for health and hygiene (AOR 2.30, 95%CI 1.23-4.28), having prevention of genital infections (AOR 3.29, 95%CI 1.34-8.10) reasons. Other positive predictors were never having drank alcohol (AOR 1.75, 95%CI 1.16-2.65) and not having a relative or friend who was infected or died of HIV (AOR 1.63, 95%CI 1.07-2.47), while having more than three wives (AOR 0.41, 95%CI 0.25-0.67) was a negative risk factor for HIV testing uptake. Personal reasons for circumcision such as hygiene and infection prevention were strong drivers for HIV testing. These findings suggest the need to implement more focused interventions and messages on health and hygiene and prevention of genital infections to increase circumcision and uptake of HIV testing among LDTDs. Additionally, there is need to improve services targeting LDTDs, especially those who are less health-conscious.