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Evolution of methods and techniques in foreign language teaching.
(The University of Zambia Press, 2024) Manchishi, Peter Chomba
Written evidence points to the Middle East in Iraq at sumer (Baghdad) as the place of origin regarding the teaching of second / foreign languages. This was around 3,000 BC when a group of invaders conquered the area. Surprisingly, instead of imposing their language, they opted to learn the language of the conquered (the Sumerians). The method used to teach the language involved rewriting or analysing old texts (Philology). This then marked the beginning of the first methods in second / foreign language teaching. So, the communicative/task-based methods currently in use widely in the world, in the teaching of second/foreign languages, did not emerge like manner from Heaven. To the contrary, they are part of a long methodological evolution. We have in this book, attempted to critically discuss the evolution in question. For each method, we have highlighted its origin, main features (characteristics) and its application in the classroom setting. That is, a sample lesson as it was taught at that time
Trade and exchange among the iron age inhabitants of Bwinambo site in Chinsali, Zambia.
(The University of Zambia, 2020) Lumpa, Elise Mwila
Trade and exchange were critical areas of prehistoric people’s economic activities as they shaped their societies and adaptation to changing environments. This study explores aspects of trade and exchange among Iron Age inhabitants of Bwinambo archaeological site in Chinsali, Zambia. The site is especially suited for the study being located within the Tanganyika – Nyasa corridor in the north-eastern Zambia, an area that was a hive of trade activities during the pre-colonial period. Archaeological survey and excavation of four sites, revealed evidence of factors indicative of a settlement site such as a perennial source of water, wildlife and smelting kilns. Recovered materials from the excavated areas include local and imported pottery, beads, Metal objects, iron slag, hematite, fragments of shells, animal bones, fragments of human bones, charcoal, ash and burnt clay. Analysis of materials from the site revealed evidence of both local and external contacts stretching as far as the east African coast and Malawi. This is evidenced through similarities in pottery which does not belong to the known pottery tradition of the region in which the site lies. These include the Early Iron Working ware, Ivuna pottery, Proto Swhili Ware, Nkope ware, Kapeni ware and Mwabulambo ware. Cultural flora such as coconut plantations also revealed undisputed evidence of external contacts with the East African Coast. Local exchanges, on the other, were revealed through pottery from Kalambo, Kamnama, Makwe, Chondwe and Samfya. These have revealed evidence that the Tanganyika – Nyasa Corridor involved cross cultural contact characterized by interactions happening at multiple stages. The study concludes by emphasising that the objects of these exchanges were not restricted to exotics but rather a wide range of commodities that included pottery, iron, iron objects and food stuffs. Therefore, the absence of exotic goods in the archaeological record should not in any way rule out possibilities of long distance trade and exchanges. It can thus be inferred that these exchanges happened on a fairly regular basis and were not limited to personal bonds of reciprocity.
Enhancing the visibility and corporate image of Rusangu university through the utilisation of social media.
(The University of Zambia, 2021) Muchindu, Fitzgerald
The aim of this study was to develop a framework of actions that could be used to enhance the visibility and boost the image of Rusangu University using social media. Social media are web-based communication tools that enable people to interact with each other by both sharing and consuming information. A mixed method (qualitative and quantitative), design was employed. The focus of the study was Rusangu University, and this included 785 respondents which comprised of students, faculty, staff parents/guardians and potential students. The findings are that Rusangu University was only using one social media platform – Facebook, to enhance its visibility and boost its image. Bearing in mind that there are numerous social media sites currently being used by universities all over the globe that also appeal to different interest groups, the use of one social media platform by Rusangu University, therefore, could indirectly mean that the university was not reaching out to other social media users on other social media sites. These could be potential students or other key stakeholders. From the results, the respondents felt that in addition to Facebook, Twitter, Google+, YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram and TikTok would be the most ideal social media sites for Rusangu University because of the many advantages that they have compared to other social media sites. And this was the same view shared by the Focus Discussion Groups members regarding the most ideal social media sites for Rusangu University. It is recommended that Rusangu University focuses on improving its text, video, and picture content on social media so that it is not only precise and captivating but also provide the much-desired information that appeals to the different targeted groups. It is, therefore, important that Rusangu University has the best and most appealing content on several social media sites used in different regions.
Factors associated with the outcome of cataract surgery at university teaching hospitals - eye hospital in Lusaka, Zambia.
(The University of Zambia, 2020) Umerji, Fatima
Cataract is a major cause of blindness universally. The 2012 report from the World Health Organization stated that cataract was accountable for 50% of avoidable blindness in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with the outcome of cataract surgery at UTHs-Eye Hospital in Lusaka Zambia. A hospital based quantitative cross-sectional study was done on 197 patients who under-went cataract surgery at the UTHs Eye Hospital from May 2019 to November 2019. Data was collected using a well-organized data extraction sheet that consisted of variables concerning demographic data, preoperative information, surgical techniques, intra-operative complications and postoperative findings. The postoperative evaluations were done at day one, week two and week six. Post-operative visual acuity at six weeks was transformed into a dichotomous variable with borderline and poor outcomes as one and good outcomes as other. Data was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean age was 65 (SD 15.15) years old and 118 patients (59.9%) were males. Ninety-six patients (48.7%) had systemic co-morbidities and 50 (25.5%) patients had an ocular pathology. Intra-operative complications were seen in 45 (22.8%) patients. Immediate post-operative complications were seen in 56 (28.4%) patients while late post-operative complications were present in 16 (12.8%). A good outcome was seen in 75.2% of patients based on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), 15.2% had an intermediate outcome and 9.6 % had a poor outcome at six weeks follow up. Using multivariable analysis, poor visual outcomes were significantly higher in patients with ocular pathology (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.64, 6.60), intraoperative complications (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.87, 7.42), those with immediate post-operative complications (odds ratio 2; 95% CI 1.04, 3.66), and late post-operative complications (OR 5.8; 95% CI 2.19, 13.84). This study showed that monitoring visual outcomes and working on reducing intra-operative and post-operative complications can significantly improve the outcome of cataract surgery.
Seroprevalence, risk factors in cattle and molecular investigation in ticks of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in central Malawi.
(The University of Zambia, 2021) Phonera, Marvin Collen
Crimean- Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV) is zoonotic, causing subclinical infections in animals but fatal infections in humans. The virus is endemic in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe and its distribution corresponds to that of its principal vector, Hyalomma ticks. In Malawi, no case of CCHF has been reported and there is no evidence of CCHFV circulation in the country despite the presence of Hyalomma ticks. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of CCHFV in traditional cattle herds and ticks in central Malawi. A cross sectional study was conducted in April 2020 in seven districts of central Malawi. Sera were collected from 416 randomly selected cattle (from 117 herds) and screened for CCHFV specific antibodies using a double antigen sandwich ELISA test. Ticks were collected from cattle and screened for the presence of the CCHFV genome using nested RT-PCR. Data on associated risk factors for CCHFV exposure in cattle were collected from cattle farmers using a structured questionnaire. CCHFV nucleoprotein specific antibodies of 46.86% (195/416; 95% CI: 42.02-51.82) was determined. This seropositivity was significantly associated (significance level: p-value <0.25) with cattle age sex, presence of ticks, district, type of grazing land, cattle herd size, and source of cattle. In a binary logistic regression model (significance level: (p-value < 0.05), cattle from Lilongwe West (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.191- 6.037) and Ntchisi (OR 5.0; 95% CI: 1.383-18.111) were more likely to be infected with CCHFV compared to those from Mchinji. Cattle aged 25-48 months and >48 months, were two and three times more likely to be CCHFV infected (OR= 4.33; 95% CI: 2.196-8.533; OR= 4.229; 95% CI: 2.032-8.798), respectively compared to cattle of 1-12 months old. Female cattle were 2.5 times more likely to be CCHFV infected than males (OR= 2.478; 95% CI: 1.568-3.944). There was a strong association between cattle grazing in uplands and being CCHFV seropositive (OR=4.489; 95% CI: 1.799-11.2). Cattle infested with ticks were three times more likely to be CCHFV seropositive than those that had no ticks (OR= 3.206; 95% CI: 1.208- 8.509). Amblyomma variegetum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Hyalomma truncatum were identified from the collected ticks. CCHFV S-segment genome was detected in 64.44% (29/45) of the RNA pools extracted from the ticks. These results indicate higher exposure of cattle to CCHFV in the study area. Therefore, good cattle management practices and awareness of the existing risk rae required to reduce chances of contracting the deadly CCHFV among cattle-keeping communities