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Parents’ perception towards the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education in secondary schools in Zambia: a case of Kalomo district.
(The University of Zambia, 2019) Kadonsi, Kaziya
The study investigated the perception of parents towards the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education among secondary school pupils in Kalomo District. The objectives of the study were to; investigate parents’ perceptions towards the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education among secondary school pupils, find out the aspects of comprehensive sexuality education parents want included in the school curriculum, establish the factors that are responsible for the parents’ perceptions over the teaching of sexuality education and to find out who parents think should provide sexuality education to pupils in secondary schools in Kalomo District. A total sample of 15 parents was drawn from three communities in Kalomo where sexuality education is being taught. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed, coded and grouped according to emerging themes. The themes that emerged from the first objective were CSE improves the knowledge of the students, it provides life skills to the students, and sexuality education should be fitted in the Zambian cultural context. Other themes that emerged include inappropriateness of CSE in Zambian societies, sexuality education corrupts the morals of children, inappropriate age of children learn sexuality education, and that sexuality education violates the cultural traditions and values. The themes that emerged from the second objective were: puberty, birth control methods and abstinence, sexual transmitted diseases, the teaching of condoms, homosexuality and masturbation in schools. The themes that emerged from the third objective were: SE is a private matter, influence of culture towards sexuality, religious influence on sexuality and the inappropriate age of children learning sexuality education. The themes generated from the fourth objective were: teachers, family as a source of knowledge, and teaching CSE is a collective responsibility. The study revealed that the majority of the parents supported the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education because SE provides knowledge of development and life skills that the young people need to face challenges of this modern world. However, the parents were concerned with fitting of SE in the Zambian cultural context. The results showed that, although parents supported the inclusion of a wide range of topics in the CSE curriculum, they objected to the inclusion of some topics such as condom use, methods of abortion, homosexuality and masturbation. The factors that emerged in the study to influence the perception of parents towards the teaching of sexuality education include culture and cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, sexual experimental ideologies, ignorance of parent on matters of sexuality, and the appropriate age of children learning sexuality education. The study revealed that the teaching of sexuality education is everyone’s responsibility. The teaching of sexuality should be inclusive, and involve every adult member of the community. Parents indicated that sexuality education is the responsibility of everyone who has a vested interest in the education received by children in schools and as such should be shared equally by all concerned, parents, communities and schools. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made; government should make sure that sexuality education is domesticated to the Zambian culture, government to ensure that parents are sensitized on issues of sexuality so that they could as well participate in teaching CSE to their children, government to train religious leaders and the parents on matters of sexuality, and government to develop a policy that will encourage the church, the parents and all the stake holders to work together with schools in teaching sexuality education.
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Health literacy and health behaviour in the context of one health approach in Morogoro, Tanzania: perceptions, attitudes, connections, and realities.
(The University of Zambia, 2020) Muhanga, Mikidadi Idd
Quality population is a parameter for economic development. Inter alia, health determines the quality of a population. Evidently, attaining optimal health calls for collaboration between humans, animals, and environmental health professionals plus understanding the consequences of humans, animals and environment interactions on health. Attaining good health faces numerous challenges, health literacy inclusive. Realizing this, the government of Tanzania has put numerous efforts to improve health services and educate people to become health literate. Despite the efforts, health impairing behaviours (HIBs) some resulting in zoonotic diseases and varying preferences among Tanzanians in terms of health seeking sources have been reported. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro urban and Mvomero districts in Tanzania to assess health literacy (HL), its influence on health behaviour (HB) and healthcare-seeking behaviour (HCSB), attitudes of people on HIBs and its influence on health behaviours (HBs). Focusing on One Health Approach (OHA), this study specifically: - (i) assessed HL, (ii) analyzed HBs and HCSBs, (iii) assessed attitudes of the people on HIBs, (iv) assessed determinants of HL, HB, and HCSB, (iv) identified and assessed collaborative efforts and strategies towards attaining optimal health, (v) determined linkages between HL, HB and HCSB, and, (vi) assessed stakeholders initiatives in building public health capacity, developing HL and empowering people to manage their health. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 1440 respondents obtained through multistage sampling procedure, 80 FGDs participants and 16 key informant interviewees. Health Literacy assessment tool and a Likert scale were used to assess HL and attitudes towards HB, while an index of score gauged HBs. IBM-SPSS v.20 analysed quantitative data while qualitative data were organised into themes on specific objectives to back up findings. The study revealed, about one-third of the respondents (32.9%) with adequate HL, moderate HL (30.8%) and inadequate HL(36.3%); 40% had health-enhancing behaviours and 60% with health impairing behaviours, 58.8% preferred formal and 41.2% informal health care sources, 30% had unfavourable attitudes towards health impairing behaviours, attitudes significantly associated with behaviours (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression indicates that health-related discussions engagement (p<0.005), health behaviour (p<0.001), interaction with medical professionals (p<0.001), political influence on health (p<0.001), local authorities involvement on health (p<0.001) and marital status (p<0.004) to determine health literacy. Health behaviour determinants were one health concern (p<0.001), health literacy (p<0.001), local authorities involvement in health (p<0.001), prior knowledge (p=0.045) and political influence on health (p<0.003). Marital status (p<0.001), service characteristics (p<0.001) and the effectiveness of health services (p<0.001) determined healthcare seeking. Only 5% were aware and 3.8% identified collaborative efforts and strategies on OHA. There were significant associations (health literacy*health behaviour, p<0.001; health literacy*healthcare seeking, p<0.05; health behaviour*healthcare seeking, p<0.03). Only 30% perceived stakeholders’ initiatives on health and related aspects to be effective. An alternative hypothesis that Health literacy does not differ significantly among individuals exhibiting HEBs and those with HIBs under OHA was confirmed (F=795.206, p<0.001) and null hypothesis rejected. Much as low HL and ineffective efforts on health education were observed, positive attitudes towards HIBs also contributed to the observed HBs. This study recommends strengthening efforts to enhance health information dissemination through health education focusing on culture as the context that informs behaviours.
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Effects of orthographic depth on morphological awareness among Silozi – english bilingual 6th graders in Mongu primary schools, Zambia.
(The University of Zambia, 2019) Mushimbei, Kufamuyeke
Orthographic depth affects reading development among beginning readers. Morphology Awareness (MA) is one of the often-overlooked building blocks for reading fluency, reading comprehension, and spelling. Research has demonstrating the importance of strong morphological teaching as early as first and second grade. Where traditionally it has been the focus in middle and high school years. This study investigated the effects of orthographic depth on morphological awareness among sixth graders. The purpose of the study was to determine crosslinguistically how orthographic depth affects (MA) among Silozi and English learners at grade 6 level at Mongu primary school, western province of Zambia. In order to measure their (MA), a test was designed in each of the two languages. The quasi-experimental design in this study aimed at answering production (derivational) and decomposition measurement tasks in both Silozi and English as main tool for the assessment of (MA). The Silozi version was a direct translation of the English one. Each assessment task sheet had two sections with 20 items on decomposition and 18 on derivation. To that end, both versions of the morphological awareness MA tasks, were administered to 120 children who were English – Silozi bilinguals. The quantitative data was analysed using Descriptive and inferential statistics. Therefore, in order to explore differences in performance between the Silozi and English languages, analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear regression and correlations were used. The results of the statistical analysis indicated high levels of reliability for both versions of the MA tasks. Generally, the results show statistically significant variations in MA decomposition and derivational between Silozi and English languages. However, the results revealed that learners performed better in English language than Silozi language.
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Web and mobile based examination results dissemination and verification system using authenticated encryption : a case of technical education vocational and entrepreneurship training authority.
(The University of Zambia, 2019) Mseteka, Lister
ABSTRACT Institutions of higher learning retain sensitive data making them highly attractive targets for cybercrime . However, most developing countries and public higher institutions of learning have low levels of I nformation and C ommunication T echnology (ICT) and hence face challenges in securing inform ation and information systems. Therefore, the dissemination of students’ examination results by public higher institutions through web and mobile applications usually raise security concerns on how to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of students’ examination results due to susceptibility of web and mobile applications to cyber attacks In this study, a model was designed for secure storage and dissemination of students’ examination results using encryption and cryptographic hash functi ons to provide information security objectives of confidentiality, integrit y and authenticity assurances on students’ examination results. T he study was guided by three (3) objectives. A baseline study was conducted to determine the challenges faced by Zam bia’s Technical Education, Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Authority (TEVETA) and students regarding dissemination of students’ examination results in order to address objective number one (1). The results from the study indicate that the current TEVETA business processes have a number of irregularities. These include candidate registration, storage of students’ examination results and dissemination of students’ examination results. The results from the baseline study were used to design a model wh ich was then used to develop the prototype in order to address the second (2) and third (3) objective. The results obtained from the test and evaluation of the developed prototype based on the model showed not only improved efficiency in dissemination of e xamination results but also confidentiality of students’ results through encryption as well of integrity of students’ examination results through detection of altered students’ examination results during transmission and storage through cryptographic hash function.
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Estimation of irrigation water abstraction in the upper reaches of Lunsemfwa, Mulungushi, Mwomboshi and Mkushi sub-basins.
(The Univeristy of Zambia, 2018) Tshenyego, Lamong
Water abstraction is achieved by many means, and for many purposes. Abstraction depends on many variables that include the purpose for the abstraction, the location, the type of laws in place regarding the procedure, and the type of resources available for the abstraction process. The overall objective of the study was to estimate the abstraction for irrigation water from the upper reaches of Mkushi, Mulungushi, Mwomboshi and Lunsemfwa sub-Basins. For the years 2013–2017 Landsat (L8OLI/TIRS), QGIS and AquaCrop packages were used to generate water abstraction estimates. Field and climate data was obtained from the internet and literature as well as weather stations under Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management (SASSACAL) project closer to the sub-catchments. Reference evapotranspiration was determined using FAO ETo calculator and ranged from 6.84 mm/day to 7.02mm/day. The QGIS software was used to delineate the catchments areas. Mwomboshi had a smallest catchment area of 3043 km2, while Lunsemfwa had largest area of 7794 km2. Classified estimates of irrigated areas within each sub basin under the study were for the period 2013 to 2017. The least recorded irrigated area was in Mkushi in 2016 (12 km2) while highest being 167 km2 in Lunsemfwa in 2013. For the five years period (2013 to 2017) Mkushi has irrigated a sum of 103.83 km2, Lunsemfwa 692.00 km2, Mulungushi 136.00 km2 and Mwomboshi with the sum of 115.17 km2. For this study the soils were set as described by in the soil map of Zambia and put into the soil Characteristic calculator to estimate their physical properties. The results show that maximum volume of water abstracted in all the catchment was estimated at 120,203,800 m3 in 2013, while the minimum was in 2014 estimated at 73,366,400 m3. The results show that for maximum volume abstracted for irrigation had a significant difference when comparing Lunsemfwa catchment to Mkushi. Mulungushi and Mwomboshi show no chances of being the same at alpha of 0.05 level.