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Effectiveness of the national road tolling programme in promoting road infrastructure development in Zambia: a case study of toll gates in Lusaka province.
(The University of Zambia, 2024) Mutungwa, Nachi M.
Over the years the Government of the Republic of Zambia has strived to broaden options for generating income to the road sector due to the pivotal role that roads play in economic development. Traditionally, the major sources of funds for road infrastructure development have been direct government funding, national road fund and donor community funds. However, these funds have been insufficient thereby hindering the adequate construction and maintenance of roads in the country. To mitigate this challenge, the government in 2013 introduced the NRTP based on the provisions of the Tolls Act No. 14 of 2011 to broaden the financing options for road infrastructure development in the country. The general objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the NRTP in promoting road infrastructure development in Lusaka Province. The specific objectives of his research are to assess the extent to which the NRTP has improved the collection of toll fees, examine the extent to which the NRTP allocates road toll fees towards road infrastructure development and assess the extent to which the NRTP maintains roads in Lusaka Province. This research was evaluative and the research design used was a case study. It made use of questionnaires and interview guides to collect quantitative and qualitative data, which were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and thematic analysis, respectively. The sample size was 109 comprising 100 motorists and nine key informants who were conveniently and purposively sampled, respectively. The findings show that the NRTP has been very effective in collecting road toll fees from motorists in Lusaka Province. This is because an average amount of 14.8 million is collected from the Shimabala and Chongwe Toll Gates monthly against a total collection target of 14 million. This indicates that 106% of the targeted amount is collected. Further, an amount of 177.6 is collected from the two toll gates annually, against the required amount of 168 million. This amount is only 45% of the targeted amount of K396 million needed for road infrastructure development indicating that the programme is not effective in allocating road toll fess to road infrastructure development. Additionally, the programme has not improved the condition of the Great East and Kafue roads in the province as both roads are still in poor condition. This research recommends that the government should increase the annual budgetary allocations to road infrastructure development on order to supplement the efforts of the NRTP.
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Faecal sludge characterisation for enhanced sanitation provision in peri-urban areas of Lusaka.
(The University of Zambia, 2019) Tembo, James Madalitso
Lusaka city has over 70 percent of its population residing in peri-urban areas where more than 90 percent of the residents rely on pit latrines for excreta disposal. However, no Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) systems exist to manage the faecal sludge from these facilities. This situation results in faecal sludge ending up in the environment where it contributes to environmental degradation. The design of adequate FSM facilities requires availability of comprehensive faecal sludge quality data in addition to data on quantities. Non availability of the faecal sludge quality data for the city of Lusaka was therefore the main reason why this study was conceived. The study evaluated in detail, the sanitation practices in peri-urban areas that impact on faecal sludge quality, including faecal sludge quality characteristics that would impact on valorisation. The study also assessed the variability of the faecal sludge quality with depth and geological formations. Sanitation practices were evaluated through both qualitative and quantitative methods involving observations and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and household questionnaires. Data for the other aspects was collected using field surveys and laboratory experiments. A total of 100 pit latrines to serve as sampling points were selected using a stratified purposive sampling method. A total of 28 parameters falling within the physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological categories were analysed. Among the major findings were the following: there was no regulation on the design, construction and usage of sanitation facilities in peri-urban areas leading to practices that compromised the faecal sludge quality; the faecal sludge was found to have high valorization potential assessed from the high organic matter and nutrient content and low concentration of inhibitory substances. For the analysed top and bottom sludge samples, Total Volatile Solids (TVS) averaged 0.63±0.145 and 0.55±0.107g/g dry solids, Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) averaged 129,407±55,088 and 112,052±51,467 mg O2/L, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) averaged 1,045±527 and 1,006±470 mg O2/L, respectively. Microbiological parameters generally recorded high counts with the prevalence of viable Ascaris at 27 percent (n=100); there were statistically insignificant differences with depth among the means of the various parameters indicative of biodegradation except for TVS (p=0.0005), Viable Ascaris (p=0.0021) and Cryptosporidium (p=0.0002); and variability of the faecal sludge quality with differences in geological characteristics of the study areas analysed revealed statistically marginal differences for most of the parameters including Total COD (p=0.05). The statistically insignificant differences in the quality of faecal sludge quality with respect to depth and geological formations implies that universal measures could be instituted in the management of the sludge without giving consideration to the source. Based on the results, a responsive Operations Framework for enhanced FSM service delivery integrating faecal sludge quality with reuse initiatives, regulation and awareness creation was proposed. Some of the recommendations included replication of the study to cover the rain season and also evaluating the feasibility of the faecal sludge reuse initiatives from the local social-cultural perspective as this is a cardinal aspect in the operationalisation of the proposed framework.
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An investigation of the level of security on automated teller machines (ATM) in Zambia based on payment card industry data security standard (PCI DSS).
(The University of Zambia, 2019) Kasanda, Ella Nsonta
Automated Teller Machines (ATM) have revolutionized banking in Zambia, as customers are able to conduct several banking activities without physical Interaction with bank staff. They have however brought with them challenges of cyber-crime. Banks in Zambia have suffered financial losses through ATM fraud. Compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) can mitigate ATM cyber-crimes in Zambia. The objectives of this research are to investigate challenges and the level of security on ATMs in Zambia based on the PCI DSS standard, and to investigate the effect of the EMV chip and PIN card on ATM crime and finally propose a framework to address the challenges of ATM fraud in Zambia. To address the first objective, a baseline study was carried out using the twelve requirements of the PCI DSS framework. Purposive sampling was used to select Information Technology staff in charge of ATM security from eight commercial banks in Zambia and employees from two ATM vendor companies as the target population of the research. The statistical information from Bank of Zambia on the ATM frauds faced before and after the introduction of the EMV chip and PIN card was used to address the second objective. Based on the results from the first and second objectives a Framework was proposed to help reduce ATM fraud in Zambia. From the baseline study it has been established that all the eight participating banks are non-compliant to the PCI DSS Framework. The levels of compliance range from 50% to 83%. This compromises ATM security as a cyber-criminal only needs 1 non-compliance to compromise card holder data. The statistics from Bank of Zambia show that ATM fraud has continued to rise even after the introduction of the chip and PIN card. A 6 layered framework has been proposed to help banks enhance ATM security and to ensure the country is cyber-ready for emerging ATM crimes like Jackpotting. The PCI DSS is part of the security measures in the proposed framework.
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Grain storage facilities maintenance challenges in Zambia: a case study of the food reserve agency.
(The University of Zambia, 2023) Muntanga, Cravans
This study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of strategic maize storage in Zambia. Maize is a staple food in Zambia. However, because of seasonal production, its storage must be such that it is kept in good condition for sustained supply all year round. It has been observed that a large proportion of stored grain is wasted because of poor post-harvest management in Southern African countries such as Zambia. Among the factors responsible for losses are inadequate and ineffective grain storage facilities and poor handling practices. In Zambia, the mandate for management of sustainable national strategic food reserves and ensuring national food security lies with the Food Reserve Agency (FRA). This research therefore used the FRA as a case study to investigate the challenges that the agency faces in the management maize storage facilities. Using the mixed methods approach, the study deployed explanatory case study with the study centered on three key theories, namely: maintenance management, asset management and property management with the scope covering all the silos and six sheds managed by the FRA across Zambia. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the current state of strategic storage facilities, to determine the maintenance philosophy used in the management of strategic storage facilities, to establish the challenges faced in the maintenance of strategic storage facilities and to determine the best and most cost-effective strategies to use in the maintance of strategic storage facilities. The study’s participants were drawn from within the FRA and held different portfolios that included marketing, standards and quality, warehousing, property management and monitoring and evaluation. Among the findings of the study was that the depots and sheds of FRA were in fairly good and acceptable condition. The findings, however, showed that the FRA did not have a clear maintenance management policy or a maintenance management philosophy. Much of its approach to maintenance management was on an ad hoc or reactive basis. Additionally, capacity gaps, technical and financial inadequacies were identified as major challenges in conducting effective maintenance management. Other findings showed that the FRA conducted inspections on its property but that these were not structured. Overall, there is need for the FRA to adopt robust policies on maintenance management so that the implementation of maintenance management is well planned and structured.
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Design, fabrication and testing of a parabolic trough solar collector air heater for a greenhouse solar dryer.
(The University of Zambia, 2022) Njeri, Eric King'ori
In an effort to mitigate post-harvest losses (PHL) of agricultural products from farmers and the markets, greenhouse solar dryers (GSD) have been extensively employed by various stakeholders. The operation of these conventional GSD is though allowing cool or cold ambient air to enter them during drying. Consequently, temperature and relative humidity of the air inside the GSD is lowered and increased respectively thereby increasing the drying time which is undesirable, and reducing the overall efficiency of the GSD. The research study aimed at designing, fabricating a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) air heater for a GSD and testing its performance. Additionally, the performance of the modified GSD with and without the PTSC was investigated. Quantitative research design was employed in carrying out of this research study. The specific methodological aproaches of the research study included, design of the PTSC air heater, fabrication of the PTSC air heater, testing of the PTSC air heater, experimentation for data collection, data analysis using Microsoft Excel and reporting. Key geometrical parameters for the designed PTSC air heater were rim angle of 98o, focal length of 0.2608 m, height of 0.3451 m, aperture width of 1.2 m and PTSC length of 2m giving a collector area of 2.4m2. The PTSC air heater was tested and attached to the GSD that acted as the drying chamber with a total volume of 35.625 m3. With a PTSC air heater thermal efficiency of 5.3 percent, the results showed that the maximum temperature at the absorber tube was 86.7 oC and temperature of the heated air was 80.1 oC. The maximum temperature recorded inside the GSD with and without the PTSC connected was 62 oC and 44 oC respectively. The new modification of the GSD with a PTSC increased the temperature of the GSD to the optimum and stable levels of 45 oC to 60 oC required for drying tomatoes. Performance analysis of the GSD that were done included initial and final moisture content determination of tomatoes, found and reported to be 94 percent on average and 14 respectively. Drying rates of the GSD with and without the PTSC was found to be 1.738 kg/hr and 1.227 kg/hr respectively. Percentage saved time of drying 15kg equal amounts of tomatoes was found to be 27.3 percent when the PTSC air heater was connected to the GSD compared to unmodified GSD respectively. Specific energy consumption of the GSD with and without the PTSC air heater was found to be 5.54 kWh/kg and 7.627 kWh/kg respectively, specific moisture extraction rate was found to be 0.1778 kg/kWh and 0.1311 kg/kWh for the GSD with and without the PTSC air heater respectively. The thermal efficiency of the GSD was found to be 11.3 percent at 15 kg loading capacity, comparable to other hitherto similar work done by various researchers. These findings showed the significance of modifying the GSD with a PTSC air heater in improving the drying technologies of agro-based products in mitigating PHL.