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    The Utilisation of information and communication technologies by distance education students and lecturers at the University of Zambia
    (The University of Zambia, 2015) Makunka, Humphrey Katye
    The delivery of distance education depends on Information and Communication Technologies, namely, print, telephone, audio, video conferencing and radio, video and computer-based technology. Against this background, this study looked at the utilisation of information and communication technologies in distance education at the University of Zambia. The objectives of the study were to: (i) to assess the level of knowledge on information and communication technologies among lecturers and students; (ii) to determine the extent of distant learners access to learning materials through ICTs; (iii) identify the most commonly utilised ICTs by students and lecturers; (iv) establish the measures the University of Zambia‘s Institute of Distance Education put in place to increase ICTs and lastly (v) investigate the main challenges faced in integrating ICTs in the delivery of the curriculum content. The study employed descriptive survey design. Information was collected from students, lecturers and administrators. Multi-stage combined with systematic technique was used to select students, and purposive sampling was used to select lecturers and administrators. Data was collected using interview guide for administrators from IDE and questionnaires for both lecturers and students. Data was analysed in this manner; Qualitative data employed content analysis and generation of themes; Quantitative data employed simple quantitative analysis techniques such as: the generation of frequency tables, cumulative percentages and graphs. The study found that the awareness from both lecturers and students on ICTs was high. The majority of students indicated that they received their course materials via posted mail and it took a lot of time to reach them. With regard to utilisation, this study found that there was low utilisation of internet and other ICT gadgets, such as the camera but relatively high utilisation of some computer programme such as Microsoft word. It was found that the majority of students and lecturers had never done any kind of training in ICT; hence they had limited skills to use ICTs. Very few students were able to take a photo on a digital camera and include it in an assignment or research work. The extent to which distance students accessed learning materials through ICTs was little. The efforts put in place for distance students to access ICTs have not been much. The introduction of email addresses for all students has not been put to good use, 95.2 per cent of students had never received assignments by email. vii In conclusion this study basically shows that utilisation of ICTs by both students and lecturers was low. The skills to operate some ICTs programmes especially on the computer were also limited. Management did not supplement print materials with audio, audio visual or internet-based. The Institute of Distance Education at the University of Zambia should make compulsory training in information communication technology for all first year students or attaining a certificate in ICT before joining the institution. IDE should also train the lecturers in the relevant ICTs such as Microsoft word, use of the internet and power point presentations. The University of Zambia should increase funding for ICT expansion in distance education so that the institution can also compliment print materials with audio tapes, DVDs and uploading information on the internet such as modules. Future researches should carry out studies to determine utilisation of ICTs following the setting up of computer laboratories in provincial capitals of Zambia.
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    Urban Water supply utilization: A case study of Wusakile Township, Kitwe
    (2015-05-21) Simwinga, Florence Chembo
    Studies of urban water supply are essential. A modern city can barely survive without adequate piped water because alternative sources are unreliable.The research assessed water supply and utilization in Wusakile. The emphasis^ was placed on adequacy, availability of water to users and problems faced in supplying water.Water to Wusakile is supplied by ZCCM, Nkana Division. The source of this water is the Kafue river. The findings showed that water supplied was for domestic and non-domestic purposes. About 90 percent of the supply was for domestic and the 10 percent for non-domestic. Water for domestic purposes was adequate while that for non-domestic was inadequate. Water was not readily available because of intermittent supply and low pressure. To cope with the problems domestic users store water, draw water and limit activities. These measures have proved successful but are quite inconveniencing.The problem of water supply is not yet critical since water can be supplied quite adequately. The main problems are low pressure and intermittent supply. Others are burst pipes and few communal taps. Causes of these problems include aging water infrastructure, communal taps and toilets, seasons, location and financial difficulties.ZCCM is aware of these problems and projects to tackle them are under way to be implemented when funds are avai1ab1e.
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    A study to investigate the effectiveness of training and visit system of agricultural extension in Kasama West District, 1990 - 1994
    (2015-04-23) Phiri, John
    The Study was designed to determine the effectiveness of training and visit system of Agricultural extension. The total population of Study composed of 18 camp extension officers, 4 block Supervisors and 8 district based Staff plus 7413 farmers. The researcher used random sampling method and picked 10 camps out of 20 camps, and the research was confined to these camps. The researcher collected data using the questionnaire and interview; techniques and analyzed it critically using tables of frequencies, and percentages. The Study revealed that the following are some of the problems which make the T and V system less effective in Kasama west: few; qualified extension officers, and among other problems stated in the Study is lack of transport for supervisory work. Also non- availability of adequate inputs such as seeds and fertilisers and inadequate credit facilities.According to the Study the success or failure of the introduction of Training and visit system of Agricu1ture extension depends on the relevance of contents and degree of popular interest it generates, to any country. The Study recommended among others the following: training of agricultural staff in advanced courses at diploma or degree level, promoting the expansion of market oriented production particularly of small scale farmers who are the majority, streamline the provision of credit resources to producers, improve their command of inputs. These could help Government to find ways of improving the quality, relevance and efficiency of T & V system.