Disease Control

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    Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminths in wild and domestic guineafowls (Numida meleagris) in the Southern Province of Zambia
    (Elsevier, 2015) Mudenda, Ntombi Basimbi; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Bwalya, Eugene Chisela; Munangandu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Squarre, David
    Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal tract helminthic fauna in domestic and wild guineafowl in Zambia. Methods: Post-mortem and laboratory parasitological examinations for helminth identification and enumeration were conducted on 198 guineafowls (148 domestic and 50 wild) from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: All guineafowls were infested with one or more helminths. Eleven helminth species, namely, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Raillietina cesticillus, Ascaridia galli, Allodapa suctoria, Gongylonema ingluvicola, Tetrameres spp., Heterakis spp., Acuaria spiralis, Syngamus trachea, and Streptocara pectinifera were identified with no trematodes recorded. Mean nematode burden between domestic and wild fowl showed no differences having 113.7 [confidence interval (CI) 98.9–128.6] and 108 (CI 76.6–139.5) nematodes respectively. In contrast, female guineafowls had a mean of 151.9 (CI 128.4–177.8) nematodes per host which was significantly more than the males that had a mean of 79.6 (CI 66.8–94.4). However, there were differences in helminth species richness between domestic and wild guineafowls with domestic guineafowls having more species present at a mean of 4.2 (CI 3.91–4.44) than the wild ones at a mean of 3.4 (CI 2.92–3.88) but there were no sex differences. Eight of the eleven helminth species cooccurred in domestic and wild fowl and five of the helminth species had higher prevalence in domestic guineafowls. Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.
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    Indices of health;clinical haematology and body weights of free-range Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris) from Southern Province Zambia
    (Asian network for scientific information, 2010) Mudenda, Ntombi B; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Masuku, Maxwell
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    (Hokkaido University, 2010) Muzandu, Kaampwe; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q.; Shaban, Zein; Bohi, Khloodel; Kazusaka, Akio; Fujita, Shoichi
    Peroxynitrite formed by the reaction of superoxide and nitric oxide is a highly reactive species with a role in various pathological processes such as cancer, chronic inflammation, and cardiovascular and neurological diseases. In the present study, the effect of the carotenoids, lycopene and β-carotene, on peroxynitrite-mediated modifications in plasmid DNA as well as cellular DNA and proteins were investigated. In pUC18 plasmid DNA, these carotenoids strongly inhibited DNA strand breaks caused by peroxynitrite generated from 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1). SIN-1 was also used to determine effects on DNA damage and protein tyrosine nitration in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. SIN-1 dose-dependently increased nitration of proteins in cells above basal levels as determined by western blotting. This nitration was inhibited in the presence of the uric acid as well as lycopene. Physiological concentrations (0.31-10 μM) of lycopene and β-carotene also had protective effects on DNA damage, as measured by the comet assay. Lycopene significantly reduced DNA damage particularly, in the median range of concentrations (2.5 μM). The protective effects of lycopene and β-carotene could be due to their scavenging of reactive oxygen (ROS) and/or nitrogen species (RNS) as they reduce the amount of intracellular ROS/RNS produced following treatment with SIN-1 by as much as 47.5 and 42.4 %, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that carotenoids may alleviate some of the deleterious effects of peroxynitrite and possibly other reactive nitrogen species as well in vivo.
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    Detection of Salmonella invA by isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICAN) in Zambia
    (Elsevier, 2005-09-13) Yabe, John; Isogai, Emiko; Makungu, Chitwambi; Sinkala, Patson; Nambota, Andrew; Isogai, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Silungwe, Manda; Mubita, Charles; Syakalima, Michelo; Hang’ombe, Bernard Mudenda; Kozaki, Shunji; Yasuda, Jun
    The isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICAN) is a new isothermal DNA amplification method composed of exo Bca DNA polymerase, RNaseH and DNA–RNA chimeric primers. We detected invA of Salmonella from chicken carcasses, egg yolk and cattle fecal samples. Fifty-three of 59 isolates were invA-positive in ICAN-chromatostrip detection. The result was consistent with those obtained by standard PCR. Salmonella invA was detected in 12 of 14 carcass rinses by ICAN, while in 7 of 14 rinses by standard PCR. These results indicate that ICAN is an efficient, sensitive and simple system to detect invA of Salmonella species in developing countries such as Zambia.
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    (Sectac Press, 2012-01-31) Yabe, John; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Muroya, Taro; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Mainda, Geoffrey; Teraoka, Hiroki; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi
    Abstract—The Republic of Zambia is rich in mineral resources, such as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb), and mining is a key industry in Zambia. A previous study of Pb pollution in Kabwe, one of the main mining areas, found that soil was contaminated with high levels of toxic metals over a substantial area. In the present study, the authors focus on toxic metal pollution in cattle, one of the most important domestic animals in Zambia. Blood samples from cattle in Kabwe and a control area (Lusaka) were tested for toxic metal content. They also measured mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and cytokines in white blood cells using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In the present in vitro study, The authors cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cattle, exposing them to Pb acetate for 24 h and analyzing mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and selected cytokines. Lead concentrations in cattle blood from Kabwe were significantly greater than those from Lusaka, as were the mRNA expressions of metallothionein-2 (MT-2), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interferon-g (IFN-g), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The present in vitro study demonstrated that Pb exposure led to an increase in the expressions of MT-2, TNF-a, IL-1b, and iNOS, similar to those found in vivo. These results indicate the possibility of immune system modulations in cattle from the Kabwe area.