Waste to energy potential assessment : case study of Ndola.

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Mutelo, Wildie
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The University of Zambia
Waste to Energy is a Suitable option for municipal Solid Waste Management and a source of renewable energy. Generation of massive waste due to population growth and urbanization and an energy down turn in Zambia particularly Ndola is a daunting task for the city. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for waste to energy generation in Ndola. To achieve this, the study assessed disposal methods used and waste composition in the city of Ndola in Zambia. The demographic characteristic of the study was drawn from Ndola with respondents from Ndola city council, independent Waste pickers, Informal waste pickers and selected housing units across the city compromising of High cost , medium cost and Low cost. To answer to the objectives the study, the researcher employed a survey approach with simple random sampling method where qualitative as well as quantitative survey questionnaires were used to gather data, and entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), then tabulated and analysed using Excel and presented in percentages, frequencies, cross tabulation and correlation The Waste to Energy (WtE) opportunities in Ndola were carried out in the context of simulating two scenarios: Biomethanation and Incineration. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) default model was presented to estimate emission of methane from municipal solid waste at kaloko landfill site Ndola, Zambia. Findings revealed that the estimated Net Annual methane emission potential from solid waste landfills was 22.09 (Gg/yr.) in the year 2015, giving a net power Generation Potential of 7.57MW.The maximum methane production rate by the IPCC default model was calculated to be 32.2(Gg/yr.) and was observed during the year 2035, giving a Net Power Generation Potential of 11.07MW. The power generation potential for Ndola was estimated at 21MW in the year 2015 resulting in Energy Generation Potential of 0.52GWh from incineration. The Maximum Power generation potential was estimated in the year 2035 giving a Net Power Generation Potential from Incineration of 7.87MW.The Energy Generation potential was found to be 0.75GWh in the year 2035 at an efficiency of 25 percent. Biomethanation can be used as the most suitable technology in Ndola due to availability of degradable organic waste stream (134.13Gg/yr.), high efficiency (25% to 30%); lowest annual capital ($0.1–0.14/ton) and operational cost. Maintenance of methane emissions has a direct impact on national energy security and mitigating potential climate change. It can be assumed that the increased volume of generated methane, from increased solid waste in this landfill, is sufficient enough to be considered for new standard landfill site construction with methane capturing facilities. Keywords: (Bio-Methanation, Gasification, Landfill, Gasification IPCC default model, Municipal Solid Waste, and Waste to Energy)
Recycling (Waste, etc.)--Zambia. , Refuse as fuel. , Waste products as fuel. , Waste management. , Renewable energy.