Determinants of postnatal care service utilization among adolescent Women(15-19) in Zambia: An analysis of the 2013/14 Zambia Demographic Health Survey(ZDHS)

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Mwansa, Melvin Kunda
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The University of Zambia
Background: Globally, about 287,000 women die from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth and 162,000 of these are in Sub-Saharan Africa. 16 million adolescent women (aged 15–19) give birth every year around the world and about 95% of these births are concentrated in middle and low income countries (WHO:2012). In Zambia the utilization of postnatal care services by adolescent women was unknown while that of women aged 15-49 was about 63% (CSO: 2013). Objectives: The study aimed at determining postnatal care service utilization by adolescent women in Zambia. Specific objectives included determining the proportion of utilization of postnatal care services, Comparing differential residential patterns in the utilization of postnatal care and determining the influence of socio-economic and demographic characteristics on postnatal care utilization among adolescent mothers in Zambia. Methodology: The study was a cross sectional study that used secondary data which was extracted from the 2013-2014 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey focusing on postnatal care utilization. About 3,625 adolescent women aged 15-19 were selected based on a national stratified-cluster sample design from which the collected data was analysed. Data was analysed using STATA version 13.0 software and the type of analysis involved was univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results: Findings revealed that 76% of adolescent women were utilizing postnatal care services whereas 85% of them were aged 15. Eighty seven percent of urban adolescent women utilized postnatal care services as compared to 71% of rural women who utilized the service. There was a statistically significant relationship between postnatal care utilization and the type of residence at 95% CI, (P< 0.0001). The results in multivariate analysis showed that secondary education, second born child, rural residence and other denominations were the direct determinants of postnatal care utilisation. This came to light because the above mentioned variables were statistically significant in multivariate analysis at 95% CI. Discussion and Recommendations: The utilization of postnatal care services by adolescent women (76%) is lower than that of antenatal care services which is 96%. The study revealed that the utilisation of postnatal care services were different across the adolescent age ranges and also among different residential areas (rural and urban). The main determinants of postnatal care utilization were secondary education, second born child, rural residence and other denominations. The study recommended that health facilities institute adolescent women’s friendly corners were adolescent women could get information and be taught on how to take good care of themselves and their children.
Postnatal Care-Zambia , Zambia-Maternal Health Services , Antnatal Care-Beliefs and Practice