Regulation of ict-based broadcasting in the digital age:a case of Zambia

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Besa, Elvis
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Zambia has experienced significant change in the broadcasting sector due to technological advancements while the regulatory framework that was framed in analogue age has remained unchanged. Therefore, ICT-based broadcasting remain largely unregulated. This study focuses on how to regulate ICT-based or digital broadcasting in the digital age in Zambia and investigate the regulations in broadcasting. This dissertation reviewed the research objectives through an extensive study of relevant literature on broadcasting and regulation, and the implementation of empirical research by Survey with the sample size of 120 selected purposively from a population of 300, coupled with data collection and analysis of empirical data. Evolutionary Model was used as a theoretical framework because the study involve interactions of evolving technologies, services, policies, regulatory frameworks, markets and institutional systems in a digital ecosystem that requisite a more vast and robust theoretical framework to appropriately interrogate the study. The findings shows that Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV) has the highest penetration rates at 76.34%, followed by satellite TV at 23.60%; digital subscription broadcasting market in Zambia has been monopolised at 53%; and that the existing broadcasting regulatory framework is rated as average at 50.8%. The findings also reveals that among the various types of regulation, Content type is highly preferred 84.2% followed by functionality at 58.3%. Further, as regards features of regulatory models, the findings shows that Structure, Infrastructure, Access and Distribution aspects are generally mildly regulated. Meanwhile, the Conduct aspect of regulatory models is lowly regulated on one hand and Content is generally highly regulated on the other hand. Further, the research revealed that existing broadcasting regulations are enshrined in analogue broadcasting; the separation of the broadcasting regulator (IBA) and telecommunications regulator (ZICTA) has created inefficiencies in the regulation of ICT-based broadcasting in a converged environment because of disparate regulations applied to inter-connected elements of the digital ecosystem; the process of drafting the laws to enactment often take a long time thereby negatively affecting effectiveness of the regulatory framework in the sight of fast-paced technological advancements, convergence and dynamic markets. Key words: Broadcasting, Content, Convergence, Functionality, Framework, Model, Regulation, Technology.
Broadcasting--Law and legislature--Zambia , Television -- Law and Legislature--Zambia , Radio--Law and Legislature--Zambia