Factors that shape implementation of community led total sanitation in selected chiefdoms in Monze district, Zambia

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Hazyondo, Gift
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The University of Zambia
Globally, 2.4 billion people lack access to sanitation facilities and 946 million practice open defecation, with majority being in Africa. Zambia has one of the lowest accesses to sanitation and hygiene facilities on the continent. The open defecation free Zambia by 2020 strategy aims to move Zambia into an open defecation free nation through community led total sanitation (CLTS). Understanding factors that shape implementation of the CLTS is crucial to improving its acceptability among communities. However, they are limited studies in this regard. This study sought to identify barriers and enablers to implementation as well as explore community attitudes towards CLTS in Monze District. The study used a qualitative explorative study design and was conducted in two purposively selected chiefdoms with low sanitation coverage in Monze District. The sample size included 15 key informant interviews and two Focus Group Discussions conducted with the chiefdom sanitation action groups. The data was transcribed and indexed into various themes using Nvivo 11 Plus qualitative software. Enablers to CLTS implementation included community sensitization, material support, punitive action, and eliciting a feeling of shame among community offenders. The barriers included poor soils, inadequate human resource, lack of financial motivation, inadequate support from local leaders, lack of building materials and transport shortage. Poor individual behaviour/attitude and lack of knowledge were some of the negative attitudes among selected community members. The community generally accepted CLTS, viewed it to have reduced water- borne diseases such as diarrhoea after its introduction. It was also perceived to have increased knowledge/awareness with a deeper understanding of CLTS through the triggering process. The planning of CLTS intervention can utilize insights from the current study, which can serve as a framework for deciding which factors should be considered. Future research and programs should consider focusing on routinely collecting household level data on indicators of sanitation so that they can measure incremental progress in these communities. Keywords: Barriers, community, enablers, sanitation, Monze, Zambia
Sanitation facilities--Zambia , Hygiene facilities--Zambia