Development of education in the third republic: policies and implications.

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Moonga, Anolt L.H.
Changala, Moses
Lisulo, Sibeso
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UNZA Press
The period from 1991 to date is referred to as the Third Republic in Zambia in recognition of three major political changes in the country. During the First and Second Republics, Zambia was run by the United National Independence Party (UNIP) which adopted a mixed economy ideology up to 1972 and the socialist path in a one-party state system thereafter. The Third Republic started in 1991 and covers a period of two political regimes; the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) and the Patriotic Front (PF). The MMD adopted several strategies to increase access, equity and the quality of education at all levels, focusing on primary education. This resulted in increased access at all levels as well as infrastructure development. When the Patriotic Front came to power in 2011, it made a number of policy changes in education. Its main emphasis was on early childhood education and opening more tertiary education institutions to ensure access, equity and quality education. A close examination of the two regimes in the Third Republic shows that they supported similar policies centred on access, equity and the quality of education using different strategies. This chapter examines the education policies adopted during the Third Republic from 1991 to 2016 and their implications.
Education and state--Zambia. , Education--Zambia--History. , Educational change--Government policy.