Maternal complications (outcomes) of severe pre-eclampsia at a tertiary-level hospital in Zambia.

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Nyirenda, James
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The University of Zambia
Preeclampsia is a multi-systemic disorder typically unique to pregnancy and characterised by blood pressure above or equal to 140 systolic or 90 diastolic and proteinuria of 300g in a 24 hours urine sample collection. Preeclampsia complicates 3 - 8% of pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Although the etiology of preeclampsia is still unclear, some epidemiological findings support the hypothesis of a genetic and immunological etiology. The disease has a complex pathophysiology, the primary cause being abnormal placentation early in pregnancy. Without treatment the disorder leads to serious maternal and perinatal complications that includes; HELLP syndrome, abruption placentae, DIC, pulmonary oedema, renal failure, eclampsia, and death. This descriptive study analysed cases of 175 women with Severe Preeclampsia admitted to the Mother and New Born Hospital between June and December 2017. Women meeting the criteria were identified antenatal and enrolled into the study after delivery to obtain data using the maternity record book and face-face interviews for clarification. The data was analysed using SPSS to obtain frequency distributions of outcomes of interest that was illustrated in charts and tables. The age range for the women was 15 - 41 years. Frequency of complications from SPE increased with advancing age towards 35 years and above. Unemployment and living in low cost housing was associated with higher risk of complication from SPE. HELLP Syndrome occurred in 10.3% of women with SPE and so did placental abruption. IUFD was a complication in 28% of the pregnant women. Most women (34%) delivered through induction of labour. The 30-34 weeks was the peak gestation period associated with the most complications of SPE in the pregnant women. SPE is a pregnancy condition with serious potential consequences for the mother and the fetus.
Thesis of Master of Medicine in Obstetrics and Gynaecology