Assessment of user behaviour change post sanitation enhancements : a case of Kanyama, Lusaka.

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Sibbenga, Chisenga Chibuye
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The University of Zambia
Kanyama, a Peri Urban Area (PUA) in the city of Lusaka, Zambia, has 95 percent of the toilet type which are pit latrines, and majority (67 percent) of those are classified as unimproved, with isolated cases of Open Defecation (OD). These poorly constructed pit latrines leach their contents to the surrounding soil or overflow during the rainy season, affecting shallow wells and boreholes, hence leading to disease outbreaks such as cholera, which are common in Lusaka. Inadequate sanitation as well as poor sanitation practices are some of the main causes of infections like cholera and diarrhoea, and continue to be the leading causes of death in children under the age of five in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Zambia. It is for this reason that the Lusaka Sanitation Programme (LSP) implemented a project to construct improved toilets in combination with user education programmes and sanitation marketing in order to improve sanitation, as well as sanitation practices in PUAs of Lusaka, including Kanyama Compound. The main objective of this study therefore, was “to investigate user behaviour change following the LSP sanitation interventions in Kanyama, and to understand the associated barriers and facilitators of behaviour change”. This mixed method, predominantly qualitative study was guided by a theory based framework, the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IBM WASH), to assess the intermediate outcomes of the sanitation intervention in terms of consistent toilet use and maintenance of the improved toilets. Methods of data collection included document review, semi-structured interviews, field observations as well as Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). The study revealed inconsistent sanitation practices in terms of regular use and maintenance of improved toilets, therefore, the study suggest that the sanitation intervention may not be effective to bring about sustained changes in sanitation behaviours due to a number of technological and behavioural barriers identified and ultimately the expected impact on public health outcomes may not be realized. The key barrier to behaviour change was sharing a single toilet among many users, with 93 percent (n=30) of respondents sharing with other households, and a maximum of 36 people sharing one sanitation facility. Other barriers include technology design and location, rapid filling rate of pits, challenges in accessing pit emptying services and conflicts over toilet maintenance responsibilities for shared facilities. The main facilitators to regular toilet use and maintenance were ease of use and maintenance, lack of smell and lack of effect of seasonality on toilet use. Success of the intervention depends on addressing the barriers to behaviour change through designing interventions that incorporate behaviour change as a component in sanitation programming and creating an enabling environment through implementation and enforcement of policy and regulation pertaining On-site Sanitation (OSS) and Faecal Sludge Management (FSM). Key Words: Sanitation intervention; Behaviour change; Sanitation practices; improved toilet
Sanitation--Zambia. , Toilets--Zambia. , Urban sanitation survey--Zambia.