Sustainability of faecal sludge management service models in peri-urban areas of Lusaka district post donor funding : a case study of Lusaka water supply and sanitation company.

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Malichi, Mutunda
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The University of Zambia
Lusaka has one of the fast-growing populations in Zambia with majority of these people residing in peri-urban areas. The efforts by the Lusaka Water Supply Sanitation Company (LWSC) to provide adequate and sustainable Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) services has been hampered by a lack of systems and inadequate sustainable financing. There are simply no self-financing mechanisms against a backlog for an urgent desire to continuously provide good FSM services that not only reduces the risk of disease outbreak but which are also financially sustainable long after donor funding is exhausted. The planning and design of a sustainable FSM service model requires an assessment of the current practices, the level of sustainability and adequate data on which future service models could be made. The lack of sufficient information that affects and impacts on the sustainability of FSM service models in Lusaka District triggered the conception of this research. This study assessed the current sanitation practices of the FSM service model in Peri-Urban Areas in order to bring out factors that affect and impact its sustainability thereby aiding the design of a model that is sustainable post-donor funding. Sanitation practices were assessed through a technical approach using household surveys, field observations, semi-structured questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Determination of the technical, institutional and social factors were assessed through semi-structured interviews, technical assessment and field observations. There was a total of 150 households (HH) and technical experts purposively sampled for this research. Analysis of the data was done through a technical, institutional and social assessment. Firstly, the findings indicated that in the current sanitation practice, only one type of emptying called formal manual emptying and transportation were officially registered and dominant. Secondly, the financial transfers available included an emptying fee charged on households amounting to ZMW150 per 16 barrels representing 50 percent, a discharge fee paid to the utility by the Private Service Providers (PSPs) and the last financial transfer is the 50 percent subsidy paid to the PSPs by LWSC, money which was funded through donor. It was also found that the community was not adequately involved in the initiation of the FSM service projects. This created a feeling of no ownership hence triggering resistance to support the FSM project and subsequently affecting the willingness to sustain the system and later on had an implication on the sustainability of the FSM service model. Data analysis of the sustainability indicated an overall sustainability index of the FSM service model to be 6.09 indicating that the model was performing well in the 60.9 percent of its components and this was considered a potentially sustainable FSM project. The financial analysis showed that there was a general increase in the costs associated with managing the FSM service model of about 18 percent from 2018 to 2022 triggered mainly by the depreciated of the Zambian Kwacha against the US dollar which recorded a value of ZMW9.50/USD in 2018 to ZMW17.50/USD in 2022. These findings had a negative impact on the FSM service model thereby impacting on the sustainability. Considering these findings, a new FSM service model was designed which recommends increased demand responsiveness, the introduction of discharge licence fee paid directly by PSPs to the government. This if implemented would guarantee a safe environment and will trigger a reduction in emptying fees in the long run and hence replacing the donor funding component which will benefit both the PSPs, HHs and the utility company thereby achieving some level of sustainability of FSM service model resulting in improved sanitation in Peri-urban areas of Lusaka District. v Key terms: Faecal Sludge, Demand Responsiveness, Sanitation, Sustainability, Peri Urban Are
Sanitation practices--Zambia. , Faecal Sludge management.