Natural Sciences

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    Development of identity attribute metrics model based on distance metrics.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Kabwe, Felix Musama Lameck
    The growth in the use of online services on the World Wide Web has proliferated into cyber mischief, personality or object misrepresentation, and cybercrime. Diverse entities of different interests and intentions form a wide range of complex online identities and beneficiaries of the online activities. Fraudsters and criminals hide their online identities to steal services, assets and other valuables or harm innocent internet users. This research would help in strengthening of identity management systems as a way to arrest this growing problem and guarantee secure online services and online interactions. This research desires to identify a mathematical model that would help in improving cyber security in digital identity management. This work intends to develop metrics models based on distance metrics in order to quantify the credential identity attributes used in online services and activities. This study adds knowledge to past work on the subject matter to provide quantitative analysis to quantify the credential identity attributes in online services. The study considers major sources of identity attributes currently being used in the application and registration forms for the various services offered both in cyber and real space. The study further explores the extraction of key identity attributes that were extracted from identity tokens like identity documents, application and registration forms for the various services offered both in the cyber and real space. At the core of the research, the study seeks to establish how we would develop the identity attribute metrics model which could be used to quantify the identity attributes based on distance metrics mathematical models. The study utilized survey research with closed-ended researcher administered questionnaire. A total of 160 questionnaires were administered with a response rate of 93%. The primary data obtained from questionnaires was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and Excel. The respondents were drawn from Banks (14%), Churches (12%), Government of the Republic of Zambia (6%), Hospitals (16%), Insurance (10.7%), Mobile Phone companies (2%), and less than 1% from Pensions. Others were Schools (21%), Universities (16%), and Utility companies (1.3%). The techniques that have been used include data mining techniques and statistical analysis. The perception constructs in the research included Usefulness, Trust, Ease of use, Image, and User satisfaction. It was observed that some attributes were more important than the others in identifying entities. Statistical analysis revealed that among the constructs that were used, Usefulness, Trust and Ease of use were strongly related. Tools to text mine the identity attributes helped to generate statistical data to come up with a quantitative model metrics to assist in the identification of an online entity. Using a detailed literature review, questionnaire surveys in this area, text mining of the identity attribute from the application forms, and the results of the study helped to develop the identity attribute metrics model. An identity attribute metrics model based on distance similarity has been proposed. The Distance similarity is based on Cosine Similarity measure. Based on this study, digital identity management in online services and activities should adopt the developed Cosine Similarity measure, the identity attribute metrics model based on distance metrics, to strengthen online identity management. This will help to curb online fraud, identity theft, and other cybercrimes. This model could be augmented to past efforts to come up with a multimodal solution and add value to the resolution of the said problem.
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    Sustainable household practices for environmental sustainability in informal settlements: insights from Kanyama ward 10, Lusaka.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Kapembwa, Matildah
    This study on sustainable household practices for transforming environmental concerns into environmental solutions in informal settlements was conducted in Kanyama Ward 10, Zones 98 and 100, Lusaka District. The study identified household practices among residents that could contribute to enhance household environmental sustainability and assessed the costs and resident’s willingness to pay for household greening. Data was collected using structured interviews administered to 145 residents and interview guides for 11 key informants. Quantitative data was analysed using chi-square, two sample t-test and the Pearson Product Moment correlation, while qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that the major environmental concerns in Zones 98 and 100 of Kanyama Ward 10, prioritised from the resident’s point of view included waste management with 79 percent in Zone 100 and 82 percent in Zone 98, flooding 67 percent in Zone 100 and 80 percent in Zone 98 and poor drainage system 51percent in Zone 100 and 59 percent in Zone 98. Some of the household practices by residents capable of enhancing environmental sustainability were identified as maintaining sanitary home environment at 42 percent in Zone 98 and 61percent in Zone 100, disposing waste in bins 11 percent in Zone 98 and 15 percent in Zone 100 and planting trees/vegetables 7 percent in Zone 98 and 24 percent in Zone 100. Results show that more sustainable household practices in Zone 100 resulted in reduced environmental concerns. There was a significant positive correlation between household practice cost incurred for greening and average monthly income earned by respondents (r ≥ 0.5; p <0.05). This meant that households with higher monthly household incomes spent more on household greening. Furthermore, household income levels had an insignificant effect on the resident’s willingness to pay for household greening (𝑋2=0.781, p = 0.321). In conclusion resident’s engagement in sustainable household practices and willingness to pay for greening in informal settlements was significantly influenced by their levels of household income as there was a relationship between level of income and cost of environmental sustainability. Residents’ attitudes towards household greening and levels of income could prove to be either a hindrance or motivating factor in achieving environmental sustainability. As such, the study recommended sensitization, providing entrepreneurship skills and behavioural change campaigns in the area in order to instil the importance of household greening and improve their levels of income.
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    Residents’ participation in solid waste management in Solwezi.
    (The University of Zambia, 2021) Mutobe, Belina
    Community participation in solid waste management is currently seen as a determinant of successful solid waste management. Cases of failed solid waste management are common in areas where waste management is regarded as a responsibility of local authorities while the community remains indifferent. Research has shown that public participation in solid waste management is marginal in most African countries. The study was aimed at analysing the residents’ participation in solid waste management in three residential areas of Solwezi. Results are cardinal in designing more sustainable waste management strategies. It utilised systematic random sampling to sample 77 households of which 28 were from Kyawama Township, 23 from Stadium and 26 were from Kandundu Townships. Structured interviews, key informant interviews and observations were used to collect data on methods of waste disposal, residents’ perceptions of solid waste management services available, and their willingness to pay for sustainable solid waste management. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, chi-square, correlation techniques and content analysis. Results showed that 65 percent of the residents felt that they did not participate in any formal waste management practices. The 35 percent who admitted to being participants felt they did this through waste separation, reuse and through their engaging a formal waste collector. In Solwezi, burying of waste (44.2 percent) was the dominant waste management practice followed by formal waste collection (35 percent) and burning (19.4 percent), while informal waste collectors accounted for2.6 percent of waste disposed and 1.3 percent of waste was disposed of through communal rubbish bins. Solwezi had a very low participation of the residents in a formal waste collection services with some residents not aware of the existence of such a service in the town (31.2 percent). Among barriers to community engagement in solid waste management in Solwezi were a lack of knowledge of the existence of formal waste collection systems (35 percent), failure by the local municipal council to provide waste bins either in residential areas or streets (13 percent), relatively high costs of engaging in formal solid waste management and a lack of alternative cheaper ways of managing domestic solid waste. There was general willingness by most residents to pay for sustainable solid waste management (57.2 percent) with only 2.6 percent indicating they felt that the local municipal council should treat waste management as a service that residents do not have to pay for. In conclusion, the low community participation in solid waste management in Solwezi was attributed to failure to adequately sensitize residents by the municipal council, residents’ attitudes towards sustainable management of solid waste and token community engagement in decisions related to solid waste management by the local authority. The study recommended sensitization in community participation as well as incentivising champions of community waste management as a way of improving community participation in solid waste management.
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    A spartial framework for managing sewer and water networks using sensor networks: a case of the university of Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2023) Chibuye, Gabriel
    Public institutions generally have a lot of facilities and infrastructure catering for the population of the institution. Some important infrastructure such utilities which include water, sewer, electricity, and telecommunications require constant maintenance, management, and adequate monitoring for them to function effectively. This study aimed to build a framework for Managing Sewer and Water Networks Using Sensor Networks at the University of Zambia. The methodology involved understating the existing operations of the Resident engineer’s office to ascertain the user needs. These needs formed the basis of the study, the development and design of the prototype of the Web based Framework. Data Collection was done using various methods. A presurvey (Reconnaissance Survey) was done to have an idea of the existing infrastructure and a more accurate survey was done using GPS GNSS equipment GIS software was used to process data and create shapefiles. A 15-digit coding system was created and was used to assign unique identification numbers and extra attribute information to the water and sewer network shapefiles. A QR code was generated for each node and the serial number recorded. Tagging was done using the QR code for each structure. All the shapefiles were loaded into a PostGreSQL spatial database and were used as input in the Web GIS application. The web application had some tools imbedded in it which were mainly for monitoring and management of the structures. Using internet of things (IOT) technology, water level sensors were placed in a prototype to mimic some critical manholes to help with the monitoring of the sewerage network. The system could therefore be used for identification of any infrastructure by scanning the QR code and a map showing the structure would be seen online by the field technicians. Students could also be able to send out notifications to the resident engineer in case there was a damaged or malfunctioning structure. Monitoring of the sewer system could be done using the sensors and ultimately the framework would ease the management of the water and sewer systems at the University of Zambia.
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    Coping strategies for fishers towards invasive alien plant species ( salvinia molesta) at Lukanga swamp, central Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Njobvu, Jimmy
    Lukanga Swamp in Zambia, is one of the major fisheries which has been invaded by the aquatic invasive species commonly known as Kariba weed (Salvinia molesta).Generally, studies show that in areas where aquatic weeds occur, fish populations and catches are reduced and this problem is not restricted to a particular geographical area but is common to all water bodies where aquatic weeds have invaded. A fundamental problem facing fishers at Lukanga Swamp, is therefore, how to maintain satisfactory levels of fish catches with the presence of S. molesta. This study, therefore, investigated how the fishers are coping with the presence of S. molesta at Lukanga Swamp. The study focused on identifying major coping strategies of fishers towards the presence of S. molesta and the effectiveness of the identified coping strategies. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods of collecting and analysing data. The target population were the fishers and residents of Waya a nearby village. 41 fishers and 4 key informants were purposively selected and interviewed whereas 150 residents of Waya village were randomly selected and interviewed. An interview schedule and interview guides were used to collect qualitative data from fishers and key informants, whereas a questionnaire was used for quantitative data from Waya residents. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis whereas quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics comprising frequencies and means. The effectiveness of the coping strategies was assessed using a 5-Point Likert Scale Method. To determine how different the ratings of the effectiveness of the coping strategies were, an ANOVA test was conducted.The results of the study showed that the presence of S. molesta at the swamp led to a number of challenges to fishers which included; difficulties in boat navigation (28.8%),and swamping of fishing grounds (22%). For the survey, results also indicated that fishing related activities have decreased due to the presence of the weed at the swamp. The major coping strategies for fishers identified in this study among others included; manual removal of the weed in infested routes (39%) and shifting to open waters which are less affected by the weed (26.8%). For the survey, those involved in fishing related activities such as fish traders have resorted to farming (66.5%) as coping strategy. Results further show that most of the coping strategies of the fishers at Lukanga Swamp were rated as either ineffective or fairly effective. The ANOVA test showed that the rating of the coping strategies of respondents were more with ineffective ratings (Mean=53) than with other ratings. Therefore, statistically, it can be concluded that the respondents felt the coping strategies were ineffective. In conclusion, the study has shown that the presence of the weed at Lukanga swamp has affected the livelihood of the fishers and how they are struggling to cope with its invasion effectively. The study has also highlighted that effectively dealing with invasive species is a costly exercise which the lower income earning Lukanga fishers cannot afford. The study, therefore, recommends the need for responsible institutions such as ZEMA to develop relevant measures, policies, regulations and effective institutional and operational responsibilities for addressing invasive species. There is also need for follow up studies to further understand the ecological effects of the presence of S. molesta on the natural resources at Lukanga Swamp.