Social Development Studies

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    Tackling HIV/AIDS as a contemporary social problem in Sub-Saharan Africa: a sociological critique of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as a preventive measure.
    (Science Publishing Group, 2015) Machacha, Eliphas.C.
    Background: In view of all the recorded devastation it is causing to society and human life, HIV/AIDS appears to be in possession of all the characteristics of a contemporary social problem facing the world today, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. Voluntary Medical Male circumcision (VMMC) in Africa and in many other parts of the world is being heralded as the new “fix” to HIV/AIDS pandemic – which has been termed as “prevention technology.” The aim of this paper is to critique the widely held belief and argument that male circumcision is or can be used as a preventive measure against HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world. Methods: This article uses the available and abundant empirical data from various epidemiological studies on the subject of male circumcision status and HIV prevention, and national demographic health surveys from a few Sub-Saharan African Countries. Outcome: Empirical evidence from Africa and other parts of the world has clearly indicated that male circumcision has never been and cannot be a preventive measure against heterosexually HIV infection. In fact, empirical data have pointed to the contrary. The relation between male circumcision status and HIV infection has not been in the expected direction, that- male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection. Conclusion: The paper concludes that abundant empirical data on male circumcision status and HIV infection do not support the widely held view and argument that male circumcision reduces heterosexual HIV infection. Keywords: Contemporary Social Problems, Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC), HIV/AIDS, Randomised Controlled Clinical Trials (RCCTS), Epidemiology, Politics, Sociology
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    An assessment of quality assurance in HIV and AIDS-related services in Chivuna rural health facility of Southern Zambia.
    (Scientific Research Publishing, 2018) Machacha, Eliphas.C.
    With many countries experiencing high prevalence rates of HIV scaling up ART, it is vital to assess quality assurance in health facilities accredited to pro- vide these HIV and AIDS-related services. Reviewed literature indicates that there are limited studies in Zambia on the capacity of accredited health care facilities to provide effective HIV/AIDS related services. Using data from a large ethnographic qualitative study in a resource poor rural setting in Zam- bia, this paper assesses quality assurance in health facilities to providing HIV/AIDS services in a remote rural setting. Findings show that although HIV and AIDS related services were available at the remote rural health facil- ity of Chivuna, the services provided did not meet the WHO minimum guide- lines/standards on the provision of such services. Therefore, there is need for such facilities to be adequately equipped in all the departments of ART deli- very so as to ensure effective delivery of these services and universal access. Keywords Zambia, HIV and AIDS, WHO Guidelines, Capacity of Health Facilities
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    The role of social capital in the employability of university graduates in Zambia: a case of university of Zambia graduates.
    (European Scientific Journal, 2021) Machacha, Eliphas.C.
    The research presented in this paper was designed to investigate the role of social capital in the employability of University Graduates in Zambia: A Case of University of Zambia Graduates. The study focused on the period between the years 2000 and 2015. In this study social capital was operationalised as social connections that can be used in search of jobs. Employability was operationalised as the ability to get employed or get a job.This research used a sequential mixed method research design to investigate the research problem. The study was carried out in the City of Lusaka. 208 University of Zambia Graduates and 16 employers participated in this study. Data were collected using a questionnaire and interviews. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in the management and analysis of quantitative data while thematic analysis was applied in the analysis of qualitative data. The results from this study indicated that UNZA Graduates attach a lot of importance to the use of social connections in search of job opportunities in the labour market. However, only powerful social connections were effective in this process and were not available to everyone. The results also revealed that social connections through relatives and close friends were more effective in their employability than social connections through acquaintances and potential employers. In conclusion, this study showed that social connections facilitated by relatives and close friends through people of influence in society were more effective but, to a large extent, they depend on one’s social status.