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    Health literacy and health behaviour in the context of one health approach in Morogoro, Tanzania: perceptions, attitudes, connections, and realities.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Muhanga, Mikidadi Idd
    Quality population is a parameter for economic development. Inter alia, health determines the quality of a population. Evidently, attaining optimal health calls for collaboration between humans, animals, and environmental health professionals plus understanding the consequences of humans, animals and environment interactions on health. Attaining good health faces numerous challenges, health literacy inclusive. Realizing this, the government of Tanzania has put numerous efforts to improve health services and educate people to become health literate. Despite the efforts, health impairing behaviours (HIBs) some resulting in zoonotic diseases and varying preferences among Tanzanians in terms of health seeking sources have been reported. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro urban and Mvomero districts in Tanzania to assess health literacy (HL), its influence on health behaviour (HB) and healthcare-seeking behaviour (HCSB), attitudes of people on HIBs and its influence on health behaviours (HBs). Focusing on One Health Approach (OHA), this study specifically: - (i) assessed HL, (ii) analyzed HBs and HCSBs, (iii) assessed attitudes of the people on HIBs, (iv) assessed determinants of HL, HB, and HCSB, (iv) identified and assessed collaborative efforts and strategies towards attaining optimal health, (v) determined linkages between HL, HB and HCSB, and, (vi) assessed stakeholders initiatives in building public health capacity, developing HL and empowering people to manage their health. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from 1440 respondents obtained through multistage sampling procedure, 80 FGDs participants and 16 key informant interviewees. Health Literacy assessment tool and a Likert scale were used to assess HL and attitudes towards HB, while an index of score gauged HBs. IBM-SPSS v.20 analysed quantitative data while qualitative data were organised into themes on specific objectives to back up findings. The study revealed, about one-third of the respondents (32.9%) with adequate HL, moderate HL (30.8%) and inadequate HL(36.3%); 40% had health-enhancing behaviours and 60% with health impairing behaviours, 58.8% preferred formal and 41.2% informal health care sources, 30% had unfavourable attitudes towards health impairing behaviours, attitudes significantly associated with behaviours (p<0.001). Ordinal logistic regression indicates that health-related discussions engagement (p<0.005), health behaviour (p<0.001), interaction with medical professionals (p<0.001), political influence on health (p<0.001), local authorities involvement on health (p<0.001) and marital status (p<0.004) to determine health literacy. Health behaviour determinants were one health concern (p<0.001), health literacy (p<0.001), local authorities involvement in health (p<0.001), prior knowledge (p=0.045) and political influence on health (p<0.003). Marital status (p<0.001), service characteristics (p<0.001) and the effectiveness of health services (p<0.001) determined healthcare seeking. Only 5% were aware and 3.8% identified collaborative efforts and strategies on OHA. There were significant associations (health literacy*health behaviour, p<0.001; health literacy*healthcare seeking, p<0.05; health behaviour*healthcare seeking, p<0.03). Only 30% perceived stakeholders’ initiatives on health and related aspects to be effective. An alternative hypothesis that Health literacy does not differ significantly among individuals exhibiting HEBs and those with HIBs under OHA was confirmed (F=795.206, p<0.001) and null hypothesis rejected. Much as low HL and ineffective efforts on health education were observed, positive attitudes towards HIBs also contributed to the observed HBs. This study recommends strengthening efforts to enhance health information dissemination through health education focusing on culture as the context that informs behaviours.
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    The role of character names in the actualisation of themes in African prose fiction. the case of Andreya Masiye's before dawn, Binwell Sinyangwe’s a cowrie of hope, and noviolet Bulawayo’s we need new names.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Mubbunu, Mulute
    Names and naming are an important aspect of literature as well as society. They act as tags and or referents to specific entities, both animate and inanimate. H uman beings as the centre of communication are not spared from the value of having names by which they are referred to. Personal names both in real life and literary works play an important role in shaping both the personality as well as their relationships with those around them. Names, therefore can be said to be a central aspect of human personality as well as relat ionships in every society. This study, therefore, focuses its discussion on the linkage between the personal names of the characters in the specified texts and the themes of the same novels. This is with a view to linking the findings with the status quo i n real societies of Zambia and Zimbabwe. This has been done through the employment of the two main onomastic theories the Sense and the No Sense theory which try to explicate whether a name has meaning in itself or whether the name acquires its meaning la ter after it has been bestowed on someone. These have been aided by the moral philosophical approach to literary criticism whose main argument is that because lit erature has a didactic function , readers must always look out for these moral lessons within a work of literature. Further, the study has revealed that the authors make conscious choices when naming their characters especially with the view to use the charactonyms as aids in putting across the desired message. it has also been established that the No-sense theory as applied in the texts studied, can be used in such a way as to show that characters do become what the name giver intends for their lives. Ultimately, this link between the character names and the textual themes is important in the understanding of any given text as it also highlights what the authors intend to convey as the moral teaching through their writing.
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    A history of the church of christ in the southern province of Zambia, 1910-2015.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Daka, Brian
    This study is an attempt to reconstruct a history of the Church of Christ in the Southern province of Zambia from 1910 to 2015. In doing so, it examines key aspects of the church’s activities including its contribution to the development of education, health and orphan care provision in Southern province. The study argues that like many other missionary societies, the Church of Christ utilised education and medical outreach programmes to win converts. Unlike other missionary societies, the church continued using education as a major tool of winning converts even after independence. However, the church transformed its strategies, from focusing on the classroom to win converts to using outreach programmes after independence. The study further demonstrates that the church was involved in health care provision since colonial times. However, it did not do much in the colonial era, but after independence, it developed into one of the most important health care providers in Southern province. The church provided health care because it felt it was a responsibility given to it by Jesus. The church did not only provide health care through its clinics but it also conducted medical missions in most parts of Southern province. The study argues that medical missions were accompanied by massive evangelism and church planting. The study further concluded that the church was first involved in orphan care during the colonial period. It argues that orphan care in the colonial period was different from that of the post-colonial period. At inception the church kept orphans through institutionalised orphan care while after independence it transformed to home based care. The study further argues that the Church of Christ and the state collaborated well in education, health and orphan care. For instance, the state exempted the mission from paying taxes on imports.
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    A comparative analysis of the relationship between nature and humans in chinua achebe’s things fall apart and dominic mulaisho’s tongue of the dumb.
    (The University of Zambia., 2020) Muyumba, Victor
    This study was concerned with establishing and investigating the similarities and differences in the relationship between nature and humans in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart and Dominic Mulaisho’s The Tongue of the Dumb. Further, it was concerned with establishing the significance of such similarities and differences in light of African literature and ecological content. In pursuing this key aim of the study, the researcher adopted a qualitative research design with desk research as the main means of data collection. The main means of analysing the two selected texts were the ecocritical and social constructionist approaches, with the former being the overarching theoretical tool. The findings revealed that, first, the Igbo and Nsenga people as presented in Things Fall Apart and Tongue of the Dumb respectively are both associated with nature-cultures and nature-religions. In their interaction with nature they ensure that there is harmony with nature and their religions are means of establishing an equilibrium in the delicate act of interacting with nature and natural phenomena. In both cases the ancestral spirits and gods are a key bridge between nature and humans. Second, in both texts the people are so close to nature that they personify it. Nature possesses the capacity to express emotions and to speak through various natural phenomena. Third, both texts exhibit an ambivalence, on the part of the people, in their attitude to natural phenomena – sometimes they perceive nature as friendly and at other times as a bitter destructive foe. Fourth, in both texts land is a central aspect of the people’s interaction with nature. Both the Igbo and Nsenga practise a land-based culture. While there are major similarities in the findings from the two texts, the differences are few and minor. One difference is that there is a more explicit portrayal of witchcraft in Tongue of the Dumb than in Things Fall Apart. In the former, witches are believed to have the power to manipulate nature and natural phenomena while in the former such belief is only implied. Further, while in the former destructive floods are among the means by which nature expresses its anger or dissatisfaction with the people, in the latter there are no floods. The findings suggest that the greater number of similarities compared to differences is due mainly to the fact that both texts deal with traditional African societies with similar ecophilosophies. The findings, however, cannot and should be applied to all African traditional societies but specifically to the two texts that were studied.
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    A linguistic analysis of Mbunda.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Kalyata, Kanyanga
    This work provides a linguistic analysis of Mbunda language as spoken by native speakers in Kalabo District of Western Province, Zambia. It describes three levels of linguistic analysis namely Phonology, Morphology and Syntax. Mbunda ya Mathzi dialect is used for this study as it is considered the standard form. In conducting the research, the researcher completed a list of 200 basic vocabulary items (Swadesh list) after which he exposed it to four native speakers of Mbunda for verification and pronunciation. The pronunciations were recorded in order to assist with the sound system of the language (Phonology) and also for use in the other levels of linguistic analysis as some of the terms were eventually used in context of sentences (Syntax). The rest of the information was generated through introspection. Information generated as such was equally verified. With regard to phonology, the study reveals that Mbunda has a five vowel system with twenty one consonants. In order to identify the distinctiveness of consonants and vowels, a minimal pair test is conducted. Arising from the minimal pairs, the study has discovered that Mbunda is one of the few Bantu languages with the voiceless dental fricative /θ/ as in the English word „thing‟. The study also reveals that tone and vowel length can mark distinction in terms of word meaning. The common syllable types in Mbunda are V, CV, CSV and SV. Morphologically, the study shows that Mbunda has eighteen noun classes achieved, mostly, through the addition of a prefix to a stem. The study navigates the semantic role(s) of each noun class. An account of Mbunda Verbal system is provided in which it is evident that the verbal system of the language is heavy with affixes that play different roles as can be observed from verbal extensions present in the language. Syntactically, the basic word order is SVO. It is noted, from the data collected, that Mbunda has a word order that is not restrictive in terms of the position of the main clause; it depends on what one wants to emphasize. Yes/no questions are expressed through intonation (sentence-final rising pitch) and change in word order and through a questioning particle. Data collected shows presence of interrogatives which are used in formation of content questions. The study has addressed some aspects of the three levels of linguistic analysis. It is, therefore, recommended that future linguistic studies on Mbunda address areas absent in this paper and possibly look at the other levels of linguistic analysis as they apply to the concerned language.