Zambia National Public Health Institute

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    Phytoestrogens and early onset androginic alopecia: a study in ndola, zambia.
    (Health Press Zambia Bull., 2018) Mukumbwa, K.
    Androgenic alopecia is the most common type of hair loss experienced in males, presenting in genetically susceptible males with high free testosterone levels. Early onset androgenic alopecia refers to androgenic alopecia with an onset before thirty years. Phytoestrogens are plant derived substances that exhibit estrogen like properties in the body. The aim of the study was to determine the association between phytoestrogen containing foods and early onset androgenic alopecia. A retrograde case control study was conducted in Ndola, Zambia. The study was conducted from the 10th of September 2016 to the 22nd of January 2017.Control group comprised individuals with a positive familial susceptibility to androgenic alopecia, with no androgenic alopecia. Case group comprised individuals who had visible androgenic alopecia. A total of 194 individual participated in this study of which 97 were Cases and 97 Controls. The high intake of Soy foods was found to be significantly associated with decreased early onset androgenic alopecia (OR=3.5, 95% CI [1.862-6.546], other food however showed no significance.The study shows that individuals who develop early onset androgenic alopecia have a lower consumption of soya foods. The low consumption of soy foods is significantly associated with the presence of early onset androgenic alopecia. Other commonly consumed phytoestrogen containing foods in the study were not significantly associated with early onset androgenic alopecia. Switching to a high Soya diet may prevent early onset androgenic alopecia in genetically susceptible individuals. Further research is required into other environmental factors associated with early onset androgenic alopecia.
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    Inva gene and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella Spp isolated from commercially processed broiler carcasses In Lusaka District, Zambia.
    (Medical Journal of Zambia, 2018) Shamaila, T. M.; Ndashe, K.; Kasase, C.; Mubanga, M.; Moonga, L.; Mwansa, J.; Hang’ombe, B. M.
    Poultry meat is considered to be one of the major vehicles of Salmonella infections in humans en implicated in outbreaks of Salmonellosis in humans. The potential for mass outbreaks of Salmonellosis is likely to be linked to the high consumption of poultry meat and the increasing antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp poses a huge challenge to treatment of the foodborne infection. Determination of virulence genes such as InvA is important as they play a vital role in the establishment and invasion of Salmonella spp in the gastrointestinal tract of the host and therefore is means of detection of the virulence of the pathogen and it is the international standard in the detection of Salmonella spp using molecular techniques. This was a cross-sectional study where two abattoirs were sampled conveniently in Lusaka district. A total of 100 swabs were collected from the 2 abattoirs and submitted to the University of Zambia, School of Veterinary Medicine, Paraclinical Sciences laboratory were isolation and identification bacteria was conducted. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were further analysed through conducting biochemical tests, molecular detection of the virulence gene invA through polymerase chain reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing.The study revealed that 2% of commercially broiler carcasses were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The isolates further showed resistance to two antibiotics, gentamicin and tetracycline after antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The presence of Salmonella spp with a virulence gene (InvA) in commercially processed broilers is a public health concern mostly in sensitive population and multi-drug resistance of the pathogen presents challenge in treatment options of Salmonellosis.
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    Factors associated with the 2012 typhoid fever outbreak in Mufulira district, Zambia : A case control study
    (Health Press Zambia Bull., 2018) Syapiila, M. P.
    Typhoid fever is still a public health concern especially in Africa and Asia infecting millions of people while killing thousands. In the year 2012, Zambia recorded a number of typhoid fever outbreaks. The most affected being Mufulira district in the Copperbelt province. As risk factors for typhoid fever may differ from one area to another, determination of risk factors for typhoid fever outbreak is critical in the formulation of rational setting-specific control and preventive measures. We investigated factors that were associated with the typhoid fever outbreak in 2012 in Mufulira district, Zambia. A case control study was done to determine factors associated with typhoid fever infection in Mupambe. All 42 cases meeting the inclusion criteria where invited to take part in the study while controls where selected by simple random selection from eligible members of each selected household. To select households for controls, every third household was picked by systematic random selection from the total of 450 household. Individual association of possible risk factors and typhoid fever infection where first analysed using logistic regression. Risk factors with the p value of less than 0.2 were then examined using multivariate logistic regression. The final model was assessed using Pearson’s Chi-square diagnostics. A total of 36 cases and 138 controls participated in this study. Age, younger than 23 years (aOR: 4.64, 95%CI: 1.84, 11.71), eating food from street vendors more than 7 times /week (aOR: 3.83; 95%CI: 1.40, 10.50), eating vegetable salads more than 2 times /week (aOR: 4.82; 95%CI: 1.63, 14.22) and drinking untreated water (aOR: 4.56, 95%CI: 1.73, 12.14) were significantly associated with typhoid fever. Eating of unsafe food and personal hygiene were factors responsible for the typhoid fever outbreak, suggesting that sensitising the community on good hygiene practices and general cleanliness could prevent further recurrences. Hygiene, Outbreak, Risk factors, Typhoid, Zambia
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    Microbial translocation and its clinical significance
    (Zambia National Public Health Institute, 2018) Kaonga, P; Kaimoyo, E; Kelly, P.
    The literature was searched in PubMed Medline National Library of Medicine from 1990 to 2016 were used. The following words were used: ‘microbial translocation’ and ‘clinical significance,’ or ‘biomarkers,’ or ‘toll-like receptor,’ or ‘pathogen-associated molecular pattern.’ We found 3,300 published manuscripts using the above search. Of 3,300 manuscripts, we dropped 2087 and 723 manuscripts either they did not suit this review or were not in English; 490 manuscripts were selected for this review. From the literature, there is evidence that microbial translocation occurs in both animals and humans, but unlike in animals, its clinical significance remains questionable in humans. This could partly be explained by the current lack of a single acceptable sensitive and accurate biomarker to detect microbial translocation. Additionally, the extent to which microbial translocation in animals can be demonstrated cannot apply to humans for the sake of research without an underlying disease. In humans microbial translocation is associated with many conditions and microbial products may lead to systemic inflammation and immune activation. Although some of the microbial products or Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) have been studied, their clinical importance is not well established, and the assays developed to measure PAMPs in blood have not been developed or validated for clinical use. However, a few molecules of microbial origin have been used as biomarkers of microbial translocation in many disease conditions. The innate immune system detects all PAMPs through cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Detection of PAMPs through pathogen recognition receptors such as Toll like receptors which result in the activation of the transcription factors, NK-κB, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We provide a synthesis of the current understanding of the nature of microbial translocation, PAMP-receptor interaction and the health significance of microbial translocation in humans.
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    Characteristics of patients with psychosis at Ndola Teaching Hospital Psychiatric Unit, Zambia
    (Health Press Zambia Bull., 2017) Lukonde, E.; Siziya, S.
    Description of patients with psychosis is important in deciding on the best treatment to be offered to them. The objective of the study was to describe patients with psychosis at Ndola Central Hospital Psychiatric Unit, Zambia. Of the 699 patients who were seen and diagnosed with psychosis in a period of 12 months (01/01/14 to 31/12/14), records of 248 patients were considered in the study. However, 233 (94.0%) of 248 records were reviewed. Most of the patients were single (47.2%), of male gender (64.8%), unemployed (73.5%), attained secondary or higher level of education (70.3%) and from families made up of 5 or more members. Among males, 90.8% consumed alcohol compared to 33.3% of females (p<0.001). In relation to drug abuse, 54.3% of males smoked cannabis while none of the females smoked it. Among females, 28.0% of them were on HAART compared to 0.7% of males. Overall, alcohol use was very common (76.7%), followed by cannabis abuse (35.2%); then familial psychosis (27.6%) and lastly antiretroviral drug use (10.3%). Further studies are needed to establish associations between the common factors found in the current study and psychosis.