Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 217
  • Item
    Factors associated with Elevated Plasma levels of Liprotein (a) in indegenous black Zambians with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 in the outpatient medical clinic at the University Teaching Hospital,Lusaka,Zambia
    Sinyani, Angela
    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is considered to be a CVD equivalent. Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Since Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (T2DM) patient numbers continue to rise, and since patients continue to present with cardiovascular disease-related complications, it is possible that some of these patients have high plasma levels of Lp(a). The aim of the study was to investigate the plasma levels of Lp(a) in T2DM patients and also to assess the factors that may be associated with the plasma levels of Lp(a) among indigenous black Zambians with T2DM. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross sectional study that enrolled 155 participants, 79 T2DM patients attending the outpatient medical clinic of the University Teaching Hospital and 76 community-based healthy individuals. A short questionnaire was used to record the social demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements. 4ml of venous blood was collected from which all the analytes were measured. The factors that were assessed for association with Lp(a) included; social demographic characteristics, social economic status, duration of illness, dietary composition, physical fitness, BMI, fasting blood sugar (FBS), renal function, hepatic function, acute phase response, lipid profile, and glycaemic control. Therefore the variables that were measured were as follows; Age, sex, marital status, occupation, residence, dietary fat content, dietary carbohydrate source, dietary protein source, frequency of exercise, BMI, FBS, ALT, urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein, Triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, HbA1c and lipoprotein(a) respectively. The data were expressed as median (interquartile range). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the median values between the two groups of the study participants (Diabetics and healthy individuals) for continuous variables, the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Kruskal-Wallis test for the ordinal data whereas the Chi-squared test was used to compare the proportions for the nominal data. SPSS version 21(IBM) was used to perform a multiple linear regression analysis to identify the *9/et of variables that would best predict the plasma levels of Lp(a) Results: The median plasma levels of Lp(a) in the diabetics (20.0 (11.8-37.4)mg/dl) was significantly higher (p<0.001,) than the healthy individuals (13.6 (9.4-21.5)mg/dl). 17 % of the diabetics had plasma levels of Lp(a) higher than 30 mg/dl. Of all the independent variables assessed, the results showed that glycemic control (HbA1c), FBS (glucose) triglycerides and residence were significant (p<0.001, p=0.030, p=0.040, p= 0.004 respectively) predictors of plasma levels of Lp(a). The linear relationships showed that the plasma levels of Lp(a) had a positive relationship with HbA1c (r=5.220) and FBS (r=0.660) whereas the relationship with triglycerides (r= -4.794) and residence (r= -7.165) were inverse Conclusion: . The plasma levels of Lp(a) in the T2DM patients were significantly higher than the non-diabetic healthy individuals. Glycemic control (HbA1c) , triglycerides (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBS) and social economic status (medium density residence) were predictors of serum levels of Lp(a).
  • Item
    A study to assess utilization of the nursing process by registered student nurses at Livingstone school of nursing.
    (2015-10-05) Moonde, Loveness.
    The main purpose of this study was to assess the utilization of the nursing process by registered nursing students. A descriptive cross section was used to assess the utilization of the nursing process by RN students. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. The study was conducted at Livingstone Registered Nursing School situated at Livingstone General hospital in Livingstone city. Livingstone city is situated 480 km south of Lusaka. Fifty respondents were selected from the second and third year students using a quota sampling method. Data was collected through the use of a self-administered questionnaire. Quantitative data was analyzed manually using a data master sheet and a scientific calculator while the qualitative data was analyzed using the content analysis. The quantitative data were presented in the form of frequency tables and pie charts. Cross tabulations were used to identify special relationships between variables. The study revealed that (49, 98%) of the respondents had heard about the nursing process from the classroom lectures while only (25, 50%) had utilized the nursing process.
  • Item
    Knowledge attitude and practice among nurses towards documentation of fluid balance chart at UTH Lusaka.
    (2015-10-05) Kalengo, Naomi.
    The main purpose of the study was to determine the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among nurses towards the documentation of fluid intake and output chart in clinical areas at University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka. The major hypotheses were (1) the higher the knowledge on fluid balance chart, the better the practice and (2) There is an association between knowledge and practice on importance of documenting the fluid intake and output chart.A non - experimental descriptive cross sectional study was used and a total of 50 nurses were recruited in the study using convenient sampling method and a self administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents in this study were from different departments at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) such as Peadiatrics, Obstetric/gynaecology, Medical and Surgical departments and Emergency Departments. Coding and editing of data was done after data collection. Data was analyzed manually, findings presented in frequency tables, pie charts and cross tabulations. The results of the study indicated that (60%) of the respondents had high knowledge of fluid balance chart documentation. Majority of the respondents (54%) had a positive attitude towards fluid balance chart documentation. Despite such a scenario the results still indicated that even though the respondents had high knowledge and positive attitude, (80%) of the respondents had an average practice of fluid balance chart documentation. The study findings also revealed that most of the respondents were females (84%), and majority of the respondents (52%) were in the ages 20-29 years.
  • Item
    A study of factors contributing to community utilization of traditional medicine in Lusaka urban,Zambia.
    (2015-10-05) Kanyanta, Cornelia Nosiku.
    This study of factors contributing to the use of traditional medicine was undertaken in Lusaka urban. 75 respondents consisting of 34 males and 41 females were sampled. 25 traditional healers were interviewed as well. Literature reviewed generally showed that mankind worlwide has been using traditional medicine as long as he has existed. The study elicited the following findings: traditional medicine is used by the majority of people either partially or in totality and that the factors contributing to the use of traditional medicines are the socio-economic status of an individual, his religious beliefs, cost sharing and the type of illness an individual has all contributed to the choice of using traditional medicine.
  • Item
    A Study to determine the knowledge and practices of family planning among women in Mufulira district.
    (2015-10-05) Mpundu, Margaret Chilambwe.
    The main objective of the study was to determine the knowledge and practices of family planning among women in Mufulira District. The specific objectives were to determine the awareness of family planning services among women, determine the utilisation of family planning services and the factors that influence the utilisation of family planning services. The study was conducted between 6th-30th August, 2001. Literature was reviewed globally, regionally and on the national level that showed factors associated with the knowledge and practices of family planning. Among these factors were the marital status, age, parity, educational level and socioeconomic status. A non-interventional descriptive exploratory type of study was done. It was both quantitative and qualitative.The findings of the study showed that all the respondents (100%) had heard about family planning, 94.8% were able to mention at least one modern method of family planning, 85% were able to define family planning correctly, 83% were knowledgeable about family planning and 17% had inadequate knowledge.