Clinical Studies

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 9
  • Item
    Epidemological investigations of rift valley fever in livestock in three ecological zones of Malawi.
    (2023) Kainga, Henson
    Due to uncertainty on the status of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Malawi, limited knowledge about its epidemiology, and debates on whether it is a real or perceived threat for the livestock and human population in the country, a study was formulated to investigate the epidemiology of RVF. The study was carried out between January, 2020 and July, 2020 in 8 districts of Malawi, namely Chitipa (CP), Karonga (KA), Salima (SA), Mangochi (MH), Chiradzulu (CZ), Thyolo (TO), Chikwawa (CK) and Nsanje (NE). These districts were purposively selected from three ecological zones (EZ). Across-section survey using semi-structured questionnaire (n=400), was conducted to capture knowledge, attitude and management practices (KAP) information towards RVF. Average KAP score was calculated from total scores for knowledge, attitude and practices and assessed. In addition, 1,523 whole blood samples of cattle, goat and sheep were collected and 361 livestock farmers participated in questionnaire administration to capture information on potential risk factors. Indirect competition ELISA (cELISA) and IgM Antibody Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay (MAC-ELISA) were used to detect presence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antibodies in serum. Questionnaire survey and the sero-positivity data, were analyzed for quantitative results using descriptive statistics. Bivariate analysis for association was conducted using Pearson chi-square and univariate linear regression, followed by multivariate analysis using stepwise binary logistic regression to determine the predictors of knowledge and risk factors for RVFV sero-positivity. Further, molecular techniques were used to isolate and identify RVFV genome from serum that tested positive to IgM ELISA test. Participants had overall poor knowledge (score= 17.94%), negative attitude (score= 9.40%), and poor management practices (score= 41.23%) towards RVF. Only 8.25% participants had sufficient knowledge on RVF. The crude seroprevalence was 17.14%, (95% CI= 15.33-19.11) at individual livestock level. The seroprevalence across the ecological zones (EZ) were 20.34%, 11.78% and 14.55% for EZ1, EZ2 and EZ3, respectively, while seroprevalence for species were 21.35%, 7.72% and 25.68% for cattle, goat and sheep, respectively. The overall herd seroprevalence was 33.24%, (95% CI= 28.18-38.11). Sheep herd registered seroprevalence of 100% (95% CI= 73.23– 1.00) higher than cattle and goat (p=0.019), consisted of 64.29% for IgG seroprevalence and 35.71% for IgM seroprevalence herds. Further, the herd seroprevalence for EZ2 was comparatively higher at 36.36%, (95% CI= 28.6-44.55) than EZ1 34.12%, (95% CI= 24.40-45.88) and EZ3 29.32%, (95% CI= 21.92–37.95), at (p=0.047). Risk factors for RVFV seropositivity at individual livestock was sex of livestock and risk factors at herd level were areas receiving rainfall amount of <1,000mm and mixed species herds. The study demonstrated the presence of RVFV through detection of RVFV genome from three samples of livestock. Results of this study provided epidemiological information of RVF in livestock in Malawi and the available gaps in control and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the study recommends community sensitization on RVF and investigation of RVFV seroprevalence in humans working in the risky areas for better clarification of impact of predisposing factors and risky management practices observed in the study area. Further, recommends study on molecular epidemiology of RVFV in livestock, humans and mosquitoes to effectively describe the RVFV in circulation.
  • Item
    Accumulation of Metals in the Liver and Kidneys of Cattle from Agricultural Areas in Lusaka, Zambia
    (Journal of veterinary medicine, 2012-05-11) Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Umemura, Takashi
    ABSTRACT. Intensive agricultural practices are recognized as significant sources of metal pollution in soils and pasture. This study investigated metal contamination in cattle offal from an agricultural area in Zambia, where inorganic fertilizers, agricultural lime, and pesticides are routinely applied. The highest median values (mg/kg, wet weight) of Cu (40.9), Zn (35.2), Cr (1.35) and Ni (0.594) were recorded in the liver, whereas the highest median values of Pb (0.061) and Cd (0.049) were found in kidneys. Maximum levels of Hg, As and Co were under 0.2 mg/kg in both organs. Pb and Cd did not exceed the benchmark values in cattle offal for human consumption and did not pose immediate health risks. Concentrations of Ni and Cr could present a public health concern. Monitoring of metal accumulations in offal of cattle, not only from well-known polluted environments but also agricultural areas, should be done regularly for the health of human consumers.
  • Item
    Helminth parasites of the Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia
    (2010) Muma, J.B.; Phiri, A.M.; Chota, A; Munyeme, M; Sikasunge, C.S.
    The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semiaquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 ( July–December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise.
  • Item
    A comparative study of the efficacy of piperazine and Carica papaya for the control of helminth parasites in village chickens in Zambia
    (Springer, 2009-08-12) Chota, Amos; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Phiri, Andrew M.; Musukwa, Martha N; Haazele, Felix; Phiri, Isaac K
    Village chickens play vital roles in the livelihoods of those people keeping them. Backyard poultry provide a critical source of food and income for people in developing countries (Lans et al. 2007) and so is the case in Zambia. However, their productivity has been hampered by many constraints resulting in low flock sizes (Kusina and Kusina 1999). Among the constraints is the problem of external and internal parasites (Abebe et al. 1997). In Africa, the control of these parasites is limited by the high cost of anthelmintics, their uncertain availability and the increasing frequency of drug resistance (Naidoo et al. 2008). Therefore, possible alternatives such as the use of plant products that function by mechanisms other than those of chemotherapeutics, with the additional advantage of a natural origin have been recommended (Naidoo et al. 2008). Besides, the cost of treatment with alternative traditional methods (herbs) is negligible when compared with the cost of conventional medicines. In addition to being very inexpensive, herbal preparations have good medicinal value (Mbaria et al. 1998). Therefore, in a quest for provision of safe animal products, a number of studies on use of herbal therapy especially in poultry, have been conducted many of which have reported a number of herbal products that are of potential use as therapeutic or prophylactic agents against bacteria (Arshad et al. 2008), protozoa (Nweze and Obiwulu 2009; Naidoo et al. 2008; Arshad et al. 2008) and viruses (Kong et al. 2006). However, only a few herbal products (Lans et al. 2007; Purwati and He 1991) have been reported to be potential antihelmintic agents in poultry. The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of Carica papaya latex with that of piperazine in the control of nematode parasites in village chickens as well as assess the effect of treatment on productivity (weight gain).
  • Item
    Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities’ perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosisin a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia
    (Elsevier, 2016) Phiri, Andrew M.; Thysa, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvrea, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcottye, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K.; Gabriël, Sarah
    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of-free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear.The study objective was to assess the communities’ perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemicrural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district.The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feed-ing, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risksbut lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men.Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by manyfarmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a one Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriateset of control strategies by engaging new sectors such as agronomy, spatial ecology and finally considerthe socio-cultural context, which