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    Parents’ perception towards the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education in secondary schools in Zambia: a case of Kalomo district.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Kadonsi, Kaziya
    The study investigated the perception of parents towards the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education among secondary school pupils in Kalomo District. The objectives of the study were to; investigate parents’ perceptions towards the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education among secondary school pupils, find out the aspects of comprehensive sexuality education parents want included in the school curriculum, establish the factors that are responsible for the parents’ perceptions over the teaching of sexuality education and to find out who parents think should provide sexuality education to pupils in secondary schools in Kalomo District. A total sample of 15 parents was drawn from three communities in Kalomo where sexuality education is being taught. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed, coded and grouped according to emerging themes. The themes that emerged from the first objective were CSE improves the knowledge of the students, it provides life skills to the students, and sexuality education should be fitted in the Zambian cultural context. Other themes that emerged include inappropriateness of CSE in Zambian societies, sexuality education corrupts the morals of children, inappropriate age of children learn sexuality education, and that sexuality education violates the cultural traditions and values. The themes that emerged from the second objective were: puberty, birth control methods and abstinence, sexual transmitted diseases, the teaching of condoms, homosexuality and masturbation in schools. The themes that emerged from the third objective were: SE is a private matter, influence of culture towards sexuality, religious influence on sexuality and the inappropriate age of children learning sexuality education. The themes generated from the fourth objective were: teachers, family as a source of knowledge, and teaching CSE is a collective responsibility. The study revealed that the majority of the parents supported the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education because SE provides knowledge of development and life skills that the young people need to face challenges of this modern world. However, the parents were concerned with fitting of SE in the Zambian cultural context. The results showed that, although parents supported the inclusion of a wide range of topics in the CSE curriculum, they objected to the inclusion of some topics such as condom use, methods of abortion, homosexuality and masturbation. The factors that emerged in the study to influence the perception of parents towards the teaching of sexuality education include culture and cultural beliefs, religious beliefs, sexual experimental ideologies, ignorance of parent on matters of sexuality, and the appropriate age of children learning sexuality education. The study revealed that the teaching of sexuality education is everyone’s responsibility. The teaching of sexuality should be inclusive, and involve every adult member of the community. Parents indicated that sexuality education is the responsibility of everyone who has a vested interest in the education received by children in schools and as such should be shared equally by all concerned, parents, communities and schools. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made; government should make sure that sexuality education is domesticated to the Zambian culture, government to ensure that parents are sensitized on issues of sexuality so that they could as well participate in teaching CSE to their children, government to train religious leaders and the parents on matters of sexuality, and government to develop a policy that will encourage the church, the parents and all the stake holders to work together with schools in teaching sexuality education.
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    Effects of orthographic depth on morphological awareness among Silozi – english bilingual 6th graders in Mongu primary schools, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Mushimbei, Kufamuyeke
    Orthographic depth affects reading development among beginning readers. Morphology Awareness (MA) is one of the often-overlooked building blocks for reading fluency, reading comprehension, and spelling. Research has demonstrating the importance of strong morphological teaching as early as first and second grade. Where traditionally it has been the focus in middle and high school years. This study investigated the effects of orthographic depth on morphological awareness among sixth graders. The purpose of the study was to determine crosslinguistically how orthographic depth affects (MA) among Silozi and English learners at grade 6 level at Mongu primary school, western province of Zambia. In order to measure their (MA), a test was designed in each of the two languages. The quasi-experimental design in this study aimed at answering production (derivational) and decomposition measurement tasks in both Silozi and English as main tool for the assessment of (MA). The Silozi version was a direct translation of the English one. Each assessment task sheet had two sections with 20 items on decomposition and 18 on derivation. To that end, both versions of the morphological awareness MA tasks, were administered to 120 children who were English – Silozi bilinguals. The quantitative data was analysed using Descriptive and inferential statistics. Therefore, in order to explore differences in performance between the Silozi and English languages, analysis of variance (ANOVA), linear regression and correlations were used. The results of the statistical analysis indicated high levels of reliability for both versions of the MA tasks. Generally, the results show statistically significant variations in MA decomposition and derivational between Silozi and English languages. However, the results revealed that learners performed better in English language than Silozi language.
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    Advocacy strategies for inclusion of girls with disabilities in selected inclusive schools in Chifunabuli and Mansa districts: a case of Zambia agency for persons with disabilities.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Nkhowani, Kamima
    Girls with Disabilities (GWDs) face triple discrimination in education access (i.e. gender, disability and nature of the disability). Advocacy can play a key role in promoting inclusion of GWDs in schools. However, it is not clear what advocacy strategies are most promising in promoting inclusion of GWDs in schools. To this effect, this study explored advocacy strategies used by Zambia Agency for Persons with Disabilities (ZAPD) to promote inclusion of GWDs in selected Inclusive Schools in Chifunabuli and Mansa districts. The study objectives were: to explore advocacy strategies used by ZAPD to promote inclusion of GWDs in selected Inclusive Schools; establish participants‟ views about the outcomes of the advocacy strategies and to establish the constraints faced by ZAPD in advocating for inclusion of GWDs in selected Inclusive Schools. Qualitative research approaches using phenomenological design was used to collect and present data. The data collection instruments were: Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and interview guide. The sample size was 30 comprising 2 ZAPD personnel, 4 school administrators of 4 Inclusive Education (IE) schools, 4 teachers from 4 IE schools, 12 parents of Children with Disabilities (CWDs) and 8 GWDs. The sample was arrived at using intensity and maximum variation sampling techniques. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. The study established that media advocacy on IE, financial and material support to GWDs and implementation of IE projects were the advocacy strategies ZAPD used to promote inclusion of GWDs in elected Inclusive Schools. The study further established that the outcomes of the advocacy strategies were increased enrolment and retention rates of GWD in selected Inclusive Schools, and change in cultural/belief systems towards disability and the education of GWDs. Furthermore, the study established that inadequate financial resources, negative attitude and cultural belief systems towards disability and the education of GWDs, IE policy implementation challenges and lack of legal framework on IE for GWDs were the constraints to advocacy for inclusion of GWDs in selected Inclusive Schools. The study recommended adequate financial support to ZAPD from government and cooperating partners to promote and implement IE in Schools; Change in policies and legislations to support the inclusion of GWDs in Schools; and continued Media advocacy on disability, gender and education, child protection, research and partnerships IE provision.
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    Teachers and pupils views in the teaching and learning of comprehensive sexuality education in primary schools of Lusaka district, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Mutale, Agness Mubanga
    The study investigated the views of teachers and pupils in the teaching of comprehensive sexuality education in two selected primary schools in Lusaka District. The objectives of the study were to; describe the views of teachers and pupils in the delivery of Comprehensive Sexuality Education; in primary schools; explore the benefits of teaching and learning Comprehensive Sexuality Education; establish the Challenges faced by teachers and pupils in the delivery of Comprehensive Sexuality Education and to develop a framework that could be used to address the challenges faced by teachers in the delivery and learning of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in Zambian Primary Schools. The study evoked a qualitative approach using an interpretive phenomenological research design. However, Creswell, (2009), points out that in determining the sample size in qualitative research, there is no specific formula. It is ultimately a matter of judgment and experience on the part of the researcher, and researchers need to evaluate the quality of the information collected in light of the uses to which it will be applied. Therefore, the researcher used his own personal judgment to determine the sample size in this study. Furthermore, Cohen (2000) in Creswell, (2009), explain that in a qualitative study, a small number of sample sizes suffice. A total sample of 45 participants consisting of 15 teachers and 30 pupils was drawn from two selected primary schools in Lusaka District. The scope of the study was restricted only to two Grade 7 selected primary schools in Lusaka District teaching Comprehensive Sexuality Education. Data was collected through interview guides and focus group discussions. Analysis of data was done through the use of themes. The study findings reviewed that the benefits of teaching and learning of Comprehensive Sexuality Education in schools are that it provides information and skills on the protection against HIV infection and other sexual health problems to pupils, and equip them to live a productive life in the society. The other benefits of Comprehensive Sexuality Education are that it provides information on HIV/AIDS, methods of preventive measures on how to live with people with HIV/AIDS, reducing rates of unwanted pregnancies, and contracting of sexually transmitted infections. Challenges faced by the teachers and pupils in the teaching and learning of Comprehensive Sexuality Education. Includes: The shortage of trained teachers, lack of teaching equipment, lack of funds, negative attitudes from parents, lack of sensitization to the general public, lack of support from parents of teaching materials, negative attitudes from parents and overcrowdings. Further, the study revealed that some of the measures that should help in addressing the challenges encountered in the teaching and learning of Comprehensive Sexuality Education were to offer training for both parents and teachers about Comprehensive Sexuality Education, and sensitisation campaigns on Comprehensive Sexuality Education. The study recommended the following: the Ministry of General Education should intensify sensitisation campaigns for the teachers and the pupils; should revisit the syllabus on the method of teaching learning Comprehensive Sexuality Education; and should ensure that Comprehensive Sexuality Education is timetabled and examined to add value.
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    An exploration of the implementation of the dual citizenship act in selected governance institutions of Zambia’ Lusaka district.
    (The University of Zambia, 2020) Namadula, Brendah
    The world in the recent past has witnessed a big wave of migration due to globalisation which has forced many citizens to naturalise in their destination countries. The trend has seen many governments changing their citizenship laws to tolerate dual citizenship. The aim of the study was to explore the implementation of the Dual Citizenship Act in six selected governance institutions of Zambia’s Lusaka District. The study was conducted at the MoHA, NA, HRC, TIZ, PCD and MoJ. Methodologically, the study utilised a qualitative descriptive research design. The study used semi-structured interviews and document analysis as data collection instruments. Using a critical case and maximum variation, purposive sampling, the study collected data from a total of 14 respondents from the selected institutions. The study comprised of (6) officials from the passport and citizenship department ,(3) officials from National Assembly,(2) from Human Rights Commission,(2) from Transparency International Zambia, and (1) from Ministry of Justice. The findings of the study have shown that the passport and citizenship Department has started registering citizens for dual citizenship through the notice of acquisition of citizenship and bestowal of citizenship. The study also found that the officials talked to were acquainted with the concept citizenship and dual citizenship. Further, the study established that since the enactment of the Act in 2016, the act had not achieved much economic benefits from its registered citizens however, it was perceived that people after acquiring dual citizenship would invest in the country. Further, the study found that the Citizenship Board of Zambia from august 2016 to June 2019 received 364 applications for dual citizenship. Out these, the citizenship Board approved a total of 83 applications for bestowal and 142 applications for Notice of Acquisition bringing the total of approved applications to 225.A good number of them were not approved due to some irregularities. The study identified lack of awareness, lack of knowledge, delay in security vetting, lack of information from the Zambian missions abroad, lack of honesty from applicants, failure by applicants to provide accurate information, and incomplete application forms as some of the institutional related barriers to the proper implementation of the dual citizenship Act. Based on the findings above, the study concluded that the Ministry of Home Affairs, is registering citizens for dual citizenship however, not much of sensitisation was being done based on the findings which showed rejected application forms due to inaccurate information submitted by the applicants. The study recommends that the Ministry of Home Affairs scales up awareness and sensitisation programmes. It should also consider reducing the cost of applications and also decentralise the sittings of the Citizenship Board of Zambia to other parts of the country.