Medical Journal of Zambia

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    Cerebrovascular diseases in Africans
    (Medical Journal of Zambia, 1970-01) Levy, F. L.
    It is the belief of many doctors working in Africa that circulatory disorders in the atherosclerotic sense are not as common as in Europe. I have that same opinion for several reasons. In the first place we rarely see arteriosclerosis at post mortem examination and when we do so at our neuropathology sessions everyone crowds around to see the specimen. It is our impression however that when a vessel is affected by arteriosclerosis, and it is the basilar artery whose branches seem primarily involved, the involvement is of a very severe kind.Secondly I have never once explored the carotid bifurcation of an African patient for stroke and yet it is not an uncommon operation in Europe. This is not because our physicians are unaware of the condition of localized atherosclerosis, the majority of younger patients suffering an apparent cerebral thrombosis are subjected to arteriography, but none to date have required a cleaning out of the carotid bifurcation or of other accessible portions of the carotico-vertebral system. Finally, ruptured cerebral aneurysm and sub-arachnoid haemorrhage are less commonly seen than the size of the population would lead one to expect. It is of course therefore only an impression but I believe that age for age the arteriosclerotic rate is lower in Africans than it is in Europeans.
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    Factors associated with staffing of medical doctors and nurses in rural areas in Zambia
    (Medical Journal of Zambia, 2008-01) Munachonga, M.E., creator; Siziya, S., creator
    To determine factors associated with staffing of doctors and nurses in rural health institutions in Zambia. A cross sectional study was conducted among qualified medical doctors and nurses, and student doctors and nurses. The study was done in all the three Central hospitals in Zambia (namely: Kitwe Central Hospital, Ndola Central Hospital, and the University Teaching Hospital), Kasama General Hospital, and Chinsali District Hospital. All doctors, nurses and students found at the stations at the time of interviews were requested to take part in the study. Willingness to work in rural areas for at least five years. Totals of 133 qualified staff (doctors and nurses) and 97 students were recruited into the study. Among practicing doctors and nurses, age and marital status were the only factors that were significantly associated with the outcome in a multivariate analysis. At each birthday qualified staff were 8% (OR=1.08, 95%CI [ 1.00,1.16], p=0.046) more likely to be willing to work in rural areas for at least five years. Qualified staff who were single were 55% (OR=0.45, 95%CI [0.21, 0.97], p=0.043) less likely to be willing to work in rural areas for at least five years compared to those who were married.
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    The Zambia Health Information Digest July - September 2005
    (Medical Journal of Zambia, 2005-07) Mwansa., J.C. L., Editor; Bowa, Kasonde, Editor; Mweemba, Nora, Editor; Makondo, Francina, Editor
    This edition of the Zambia Health Information Digest is dedicated to Traditional Medicine. Traditional medicine has become even more prominent because of the high prevalence of HIV in Zambia. With a number of traditional healers making claims that they can cure HIV infection. The digest is therefore justified to address this subject. Our feature article is a study done by Dr Gretchen Birbeck on traditional medicine and the care of epilepsy patients. The World Health Organisation fact sheet on Traditional Medicine is also included in the Features section. In the News section and Abstract section are some news items and abstracts respectively on the subject. World Health Organisation defines Traditional Medicine as "the total combination of knowledge and practices, whether explicable or not, used in diagnosing, preventing or eliminating physical mental or social diseases and which may exclusively on past experience and observation handed down from generation to generation, verbally or in writing„. Trends in the use of traditional and complementary medicine are on the increase in many developed and developing countries. The WHO estimates that about 80% of people living in rural areas in developing countries depend on traditional medicine for their health care needs. The importance of traditional medicine has been recognised by the Alma-Ata Declaration of 1978 as a means to help achieve health for all. The African Union Heads of State Summit, which was held in Lusaka in 2001, declared 2001 -2010 as the decade for traditional medicine. The 50"` Session of the Regional Committee for the WHO African Region held in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 2000 adopted a strategy for promoting the role of traditional medicine in health systems, and declared 31st August as the African Traditional Medicine Day. Many countries face challenges in promoting the role of Traditional Medicine especially those of property rights, `standards, quality and efficacy of traditional medicines` research, promotion and protection of medicinal plants. WHO therefore urges countries to develop national policies, legal and regulatory frameworks` to create enabling environment for large scale manufacturing of sale and effective traditional medicines, protection of intellectual property rights and traditional medicine knowledge. The Government of the Republic of Zambia is committed to the promotion or traditional medicine. The Health Reforms have been inclusive of the traditional medicine, whereby a Traditional Medicine Coordination Unit was created in the health sector and the Ministry of Health is in the process of developing a policy on traditional medicine.
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    Zambia health information digest.
    (Medical Journal of Zambia, 2004-07) Mwansa, J.C. L.,editor; Mweemba, Nora, editor; Bowa, Oliver, editor; Kanyengo, W. Christine, editor
    This issue carries a selection of articles on the all-important subject of HIV/AIDS and the different efforts and progress being made towards arresting the pandemic. The main feature article however, is on Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The word "apnea" derives from the Greek, and literally means "without breath." In obstructive sleep apnea, the throat collapses during sleep causing sufferers to snort and gasp for breath. People with severe cases may have hundreds of these episodes every night, causing daytime sleepiness and possibly increasing their risk of high blood pressure and heart problems. These breathing interruptions can occur hundreds of times per night, and place significant strain on the heart and cardiovascular system. Each interruption can last from 10 seconds to a minute or longer. To lean more about this sleep disorder go to []. There is a wealth of information on sleep disorders and there are a number of sites that give sources of valuable information on this subject. One of such sites is the Sleep Medicine homepage found at [http://www.users.cloud9.nev~thoxpy/sleep.htm], which lists resources regarding all aspects of sleep including, the physiology of sleep, clinical sleep medicine, sleep research, federal and state information, patient information, and business-related groups.
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    The treatment of tibial diaphysial bone defects in adults
    (Medical Journal of Zambia., 1983-07) Izhar, U. H., creator
    Twenty cases of established non-union of the tibial diaphysis with bone defects ranging from 2.5 centimetres to 7.5 centimetres (mean 3.5 centimetres), were treated between 1976 to 1981. In six cases complications were compounded by bilateral femoral shaft `fractures and multiple other injuries. Previous operative attempts for reconstruction had been! made on three cases. Average period from reconstructive operation to union was twenty three weeks with a range for eight to seventy-two weeks. Pormanont limb shortening occurred in all the cases ranging from 2.5 centimetres to 7.5 centimetres (mean 3.5cms). Among the various remedial techniques used obtaining union in nineteen cases, Posteroatoral tibio-fibular synostosis emerged as the beet Salvage procedure in our environment with minimal hospitalisation and complications.