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    A study to determine knowledge on HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour of junior secondary school youths in kabwe district
    (The University of Zambia, 2002) Wonani, Eva Mpheza Musonda
    The main aim of this study was to determine the knowledge on HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviours of Junior Secondary School Youths in Kabwe District. The problem was identified as a result of the increasing cases of HIV positive school youths, the high cases of STIs and incomplete abortions attended to in the District health centres.Literature reviewed looked at the knowledge of the school youths on HIV/AIDS and their sexual behaviour, and the factors that may influence the two variables. Literature revealed that knowledge though vital, alone was not adequate in promoting positive sexual behaviour, factors like cultures socio-economic peer influence, and media had roles to play in influencing sexual behaviours of the school youths.The sample comprised 50 youths, half from grade eight and half from grade nine who were systematically sampled from a randomly selected school. To collect data, self administered questionnaires comprising open ended and closed ended questions were administered to the respondents. The study was of a cross sectional descriptive nature.According to findings, 58% of the respondents had medium to high levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and the difference in the knowledge levels between the two grades was minimal, with 60% grade nine and 56% grade eight having the same levels of knowledge.The majority of respondents were not dating, (56%) while 54% had already had sexual intercourse, 10% had indulged in sex out of curiosity while 44% as a result of peer pressure. Results also showed that 28% always used condoms during sex, while 16% never.Majority of the respondents, 46% were abstaining, while 34% were indulging in risky sexual behaviour, more females (47.1%) than males (27.3%) were indulging in risky sexual patterns.However, results showed that 65.2% of the respondents with medium to high levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS were also abstaining from sexual intercourse.Recommendations made included the need for close collaboration between MOE and MOH to fight the scourge, revision of school curriculum and improvement of IEC approaches to the school youths, making the services aimed at teaching the youths on HIV/AIDS matters user-friendly, regular monitoring and revision of HIV/AIDS programmes, involvement of youths in planning and implementing these programmes, improving teaching and counselling skills.
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    Obstetrics and Gynaecology Protocols and Guidelines
    (University of zambia, School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2014-02) Vwalika, B.
    Instituting protocols and guidelines have been shown to improve patient safety, communication, and quality outcomes. Thus, the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Zambia and the University Teaching Hospital sought to develop and formerly adopt a comprehensive set of clinical protocols and guidelines. This booklet highlights common obstetric and gynaecologic conditions in Zambia and management thereof that is pertinent to our setting. We believe the Obstetrics & Gynaecology Protocols and Guidelines will promote good medical decision-making, particularly for trainees, and advance standardized clinical practice not only at the University Teaching Hospital but also throughout Zambia.
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    Efficacy of the aqueous root extract of phyllanthus muellerianus in alleviating anemia in rats
    (The University of Zambia, 2017) Lwanga, Gershom B.
    Phyllanthus muellerianus (P. muellerianus) is classified under the family Phyllanthaceae consisting of approximately 1,000 species which are widely distributed in Africa, Asia, America and Australia. It is a monoecious, glabrous, straggling shrub or small tree of up to 12 meters tall. It occurs in riverine forest and wooded grasslands on deep and well-drained soils. Different parts of P. muellerianus are used for treatment of a number of diseases in traditional medicine context. In some parts of Zambia, it is used to treat anemia, but its potential has not been scientifically established. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effect of the aqueous root extract of P. muellerianus on the hematological parameters of male albino rats and to determine its phytochemical profile. Thirty-six male albino rats in six groups were used for this study. The groups comprised 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg plant extract, a group on ranferon (drug used to treat anemia), a normal (non-anemic) group and a control (anemic) group. Anemia, induced through repeated bleeding of the rats, was defined as hemoglobin (Hb) < 12 g/dL and the duration of the study was 22 days. The anti-anemic potential of the plant was determined by comparing its effect on the hematological parameters of rats on treatment to that of the control group. Blood samples were collected 3 times for hematological analysis; being at the baseline of the study, after inducing anemia and after treatment. The blood parameters studied include Hb, packed cell volume (PCV), film comment (anisocytosis, poikilocytosis and chromasia), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell volume (MCV). The phytochemical profile of the root decoction was determined by standard procedures. The results were analysed using SPSS followed by dunnett’s test at a significance of P<0.05. After medication, rats on 400 mg/kg dosage showed the greatest increase in the mean values for Hb, PCV and RBC count of 23.1 %, 23.0 % and 22.2 % respectively, when compared to the anemic control group (P<0.05). The preliminary phytochemical screening of the root extract of P. muellerianus revealed positive results for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, triterpenoids and tannins. The aqueous root extract of P. muellerianus was efficient against anemia in experimental groups in a dose dependent manner and the 400 mg/kg dosage was useful. The phytochemical compositions especially alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins seem to be responsible for its hematopoietic properties. Thus, the root decoction of the plant is useful in alleviating anemia and the results lend credence to its use in traditional medicine in the management of anemia. Further studies are needed with this plant to isolate, characterize and elucidate the structure of the bioactive compound/s that is/are responsible for its medicinal value.
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    Indigenous Knowledge Systems for the Treatment of Hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia: Perceptions, Knowledge and Practice.
    (Zambian Medical Association, 2016-01) Prashar, Lavina; Goma, Fastone; Kalungia, Chichony Aubrey; Bwalya, Angela Gono; Hamachila, Audrey; Mutati, Ronald Kampamba; Zingani, Ellah; Mwila, Chiluba; Musoke, Pamela
    Indigenous knowledge systems and traditional technologies have made and can continue to make a significant contribution to modern medicines with discovery of novel molecules in the treatment of various conditions. The traditional knowledge in our communities is passed on from generation to generation. Scientific evaluation of these compounds from traditional medicines can lead to discovery drugs with better efficacy and novel mechanism. The study aimed at determining the indigenous knowledge based preparations used for hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia. The specific objectives were: a). To determine the knowledge and practice of Traditional Health Practitioners in the management of HTN, b). To identify the parts of the plants utilized in the preparation of the IKS-based preparation used in the management of hypertension. c). To determine the procedure employed in preparing the IKS-based preparations used in the management of hypertension. d). To recommend for further elucidation of the possible active compounds in the indigenous based preparations and postulate possible pharmacological mechanisms of actions. The study adopted structured interviews complemented by non-participatory observations. Samples used by traditional healers were collected for identification and characterization A total of twelve (12) traditional healers registered with Traditional Health Practitioners of Zambia who manage hypertension were interviewed. The traditional healers interviewed had knowledge of causes of hypertension, only three (3) indicated bewitchment as one of the causes. spiritual method constituted an important method of diagnosis. The beliefs of Traditional Healers with regard to hypertension indicates their alignment to agreeing the scientific understanding of hypertension in terms of its causes, risk factors and complications. Traditional Healers in Zambia believe hypertension can be managed by some mode of action of the herbs. Common themes that emerged to determine the effectiveness of the herbs used included; patient feedback, physical appearance, confirmation at local clinic and increased urine output. Majority (5/12) felt that there herbs take atleast 7-14 before the effects are seen. All the traditional healers indicated using atleast two (2) types of herbal preparations to manage hypertension. Of the preparations mentioned three (3) were not of plant origin. These include; crocodile fat, pebble and honey. This study observed that the traditional healers of Zambia knowledge of causes and complications of hypertension are alligned to the scientific knowledge. Divination is however still the most important (50%) method used for diagnosis and witchcraft/ spiritual method forms an important method for some for diagnosis of hypertension. It is noteworthy that traditional healers in Zambia believe hypertension can be managed by some mode of action of the herbs a belief shared by the conventional management.