The impact of non-formal training on income generation and its gender implications : A case study of seven institutions in Lusaka District, 1996-2003

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Mbae, Margaret Mukwanjeru
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This study investigates the impact of non-formal training on income generation and its gender implication. Since the late 1970s technical education and vocational training in Zambia was intended to prepare trainees for the formal sector. However, the decline of the formal sector increased employment in the informal sector. Consequently, to ensure the quality of training, which suits the demands of the economy, the government formulated a new policy called the Technical Education Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET). This led to the establishment of the Technical Education Vocational and Entrepreneurship Training Authority (TEVETA), whose responsibility is to interpret and implement the policy. The policy focuses on the provision of equal training opportunity to all the people of Zambia, irrespective of race, tribe, gender, location or financial circumstances.The aim of this study is to examine trainees' enrollment, skills acquisition, certification and employment opportunities for both men and women in non-formal training institutions. The study was undertaken between September and November 2004, in seven non-formal training institutions within Lusaka District. The data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods from primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected using questionnaires and interviews; while secondary data was collected by reviewing records from the training institutions. The samples were drawn using simple random sampling for questionnaire one; purposeful and snowballing for questionnaire two. Data from the questionnaires was analyzed using the Social Science Statistical Package (SPSS), version 10.0. Microsoft Excel was used to draw tables that helped to present and summarize data. The findings of the study indicate that more women than men were trained during the period of study (1996-2003). Majority of these females enrolled for traditionally women's subjects; while majority of males enrolled for traditionally men's subjects. However, there has been a positive change starting from year 2000, when women were found to have enrolled in "men's courses". The medium of instruction was English and local language. Trainees wrote examinations prepared by the Examinations Council of Zambia and they received formal certification. The completion rate in courses for both men and women were generally high. The findings of the study further reveal that colleges did not have programmes to assess the skill needs of the communities they were serving. They also did not evaluate their current programmes to assess their suitability. There were no formal programmes to help graduates find employment after completing training. However, in spite of all these deficiencies, respondents indicated that the courses they undertook were very useful as they improved their standards of living. Majority of married women who were surveyed indicated that the training had made them become financially independent. Furthermore, the training had made them more self-confident and they were now receiving more respect from their husbands. This study calls for a comprehensive assessment of the non-formal training curricula's relevance to national development.
Women -- Non-formal education -- Zambia , Sex , Non-formal education -- Zambia -- Lusaka , Education -- Study and teaching