MSc One Health Analytical Epidemiology (MSc.OHAE): VMM 7701: One Health Medicine and Globalization
Likwa, Rosemary Ndonyo
The University of Zambia
Welcome to Module 5 on One Health Medicine and Globalization Health. The Module introduces the postgraduate students undertaking the Master of Science (MSc) in One Health Analytical Epidemiology (OHAE) course VMM7722 to the concepts and applications of One Health Medicine and Globalisation health realities. It has been organized into eleven (11) important Units: Units 1-6 of this module will be devoted to “One Health Medicine: Concepts and Applications”, while Units 7-12 will be concentrated on the issues of “Globalization Health and Effects on One Health,” respectively. Other than the theoretical perspectives of both One Health and Globalization health, you will be equipped with skills to identify and analyse the ecosystem and the globalization health effects on human and animal populations, health and environment. Furthermore, you will be expected to critically review the policies and legislative measures governing movements of flow of goods (humans, animals and other goods alike), services, capital and technology in the globalised world (Jenkins 2004) for the control of emerging and re-emerging diseases and their effects on health and environment. The Module further examines one health concept on the rationale that global trends in the emerging infectious diseases of animal origin are increasingly affecting human health and welfare. Even though, many existing diseases remain important, there is the anticipation that new diseases will emerge in the future, noting that in the last 25 to 30 years, some 70-80% of new emerging human infectious diseases originated from animals (Brownlie et al. 2006). Economic development, changes in habitation and agricultural systems, globalisation of travel and trade as well as climatic variations, are likely to increase the spread of infectious diseases. Major infectious diseases are endemic in Africa and Asia constituting to a high risk for future marginalisation of Africa (Rweyemamu et al.2006). Furthermore, human mobility and access to international markets for African animal and plant commodities could be severely constrained by infectious diseases in Africa. In addition societal contexts will be crucial in realizing the benefits of the new technological systems. Culture and governance issues are often underrated in disease management programmes in Africa (Coker et al.2011). Therefore, substantial advances in infectious disease prevention and management will be made through inter-sectoral approach for a strategic, cost-effective and efficient way to accelerate the integrated development of African research capacity building. The Module exposes students further to the ecology of health and disease, and the ecological anthropology on how they influence health outcomes of populations and environment, and the understanding of the contextual human behavioural challenges. Aspects of behavioural research are presented to expose students to qualitative methods, analysis and interpretation of qualitative data to gain better understanding of human behavioural challenges for re-thinking strategic approaches in the control of infectious diseases in the region. Ecological risk analysis management approach for disease control in humans and animals is also presented in this course. Other components of the Module, which include the review of the space and strategy of demographic growth of humans and animals and environmental constraints, the demographic transition, reproduction and survival, and determinants and effects on population structure are additional parts of these initial Units. The Globalisation Health concepts and applications for Units 7-12 provide the contextual understanding of globalization and its effects on populations, 4 The University of Zambia MSc OHAE One Health &Globalization Health Module 2014 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ health and environment; linkages between globalisation in relation to the fiscal flow of trade, human and animals and health outcomes on these populations; health risks and systems. The relationships between globalization, health risks and health systems, and the policies governing globalization for public health control measures of infectious diseases are essential components discussed in this module.
Globalization health , One health medicine