ParaClinical studies

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    Prevalence of Fasciolosis in Zambian Cattle Observed at Selected Abattoirs with Emphasis on Age, Sex and Origin
    (Blackwell, 2005) Phiri, A. M.; Phiri, I. K.; Sikasunge, C. S.; Monrad, J.
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and some factors influencing occurrence of fasciolosis in cattle, carried out at selected major abattoirs in Zambia. Of 841 cattle livers inspected and 677 faecal samples analysed, prevalence rates of 53.9% and 48.9%, respectively, were found. Cumulative prevalence of 60.9% (n ¼ 677) was recorded. According to age, no significant difference of infection was found. Female cattle on liver inspection (59.3%) and coprological examination (65.2%) had significantly higher (P < 0.001) rates than males (44.5% and 36.3% respectively). Origin of cattle had a significant influence (P < 0.001) on the prevalence rate. According to fluke egg count classification, 68.5% of cattle had light infection, 20.9% moderate, 4.4% heavy and 6.2% severe. These results indicate that Fasciola gigantica infection is an important condition that leads to high liver condemnations and/or trimmings in cattle tendered for slaughter.
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    The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance
    (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2012-10-10) Phiri, Andrew Malata; Munyeme, Musso; MweembaMunang’andu, Hetron; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo
    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%–38%) and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%–8.6%) had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%–14.6%) and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%–66.7%) of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%–19.9%) and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). A significant association (χ2 = 76.2, df = 1, and P < 0.0001) was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3–7.0). This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats.
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    A comparative study of the efficacy of piperazine and Carica papaya for the control of helminth parasites in village chickens in Zambia
    (Springer Science, 2009-08-12) Phiri, Andrew M; Chota, Amos; Sikasunge, Chummy Sikalizyo; Musukwa, Martha N.; Haazele, Felix; Phiri, Isaac K.
    Village chickens play vital roles in the livelihoods of those people keeping them. Backyard poultry provide a critical source of food and income for people in developing countries (Lans et al. 2007) and so is the case in Zambia. However, their productivity has been hampered by many constraints resulting in low flock sizes (Kusina and Kusina 1999). Among the constraints is the problem of external and internal parasites (Abebe et al. 1997). In Africa, the control of these parasites is limited by the high cost of anthelmintics, their uncertain availability and the increasing frequency of drug resistance (Naidoo et al. 2008). Therefore, possible alternatives such as the use of plant products that function by mechanisms other than those of chemotherapeutics, with the additional advantage of a natural origin have been recommended (Naidoo et al. 2008). Besides, the cost of treatment with alternative traditional methods (herbs) is negligible when compared with the cost of conventional medicines. In addition to being very inexpensive, herbal preparations have good medicinal value (Mbaria et al. 1998). Therefore, in a quest for provision of safe animal products, a number of studies on use of herbal therapy especially in poultry, have been conducted many of which have reported a number of herbal products that are of potential use as therapeutic or prophylactic agents against bacteria (Arshad et al. 2008), protozoa (Nweze and Obiwulu 2009; Naidoo et al. 2008; Arshad et al. 2008) and viruses (Kong et al. 2006). However, only a few herbal products (Lans et al. 2007; Purwati and He 1991) have been reported to be potential antihelmintic agents in poultry. The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of Carica papaya latex with that of piperazine in the control of nematode parasites in village chickens as well as assess the effect of treatment on productivity (weight gain).
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    Prevalence of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in the Eastern, Southern and Western provinces of Zambia
    (Elsevier, 2008-02-01) Phiri, Isaac K.; Sikasunge, Chummy S.; Phiri, Andrew M.; Siziya, Seter; Dorny, Pierre; Arve, L; Willingham
    Tongue examination and detection of circulating antigen (Ag-ELISA) were used to establish the prevalence of Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in free-range pigs in selected districts of Eastern, Southern and Western provinces of Zambia, and to determine if prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was associated with age, breed and sex. Households with pigs were identified using the snowballing technique. A total of 1691 pigs were examined out of which 183 (10.8%) were positive on tongue examination. Ag-ELISA gave a sero-prevalence of 23.3%. When considering the factors in a logistic regression analysis, only breed type was significantly associated with porcine cysticercosis (OR = 0.72; 95%CI = 0.63–0.81). The crossbred pigs were 72% more likely to have had cysticercosis than the Nsenga (dwarf local) breed as determined by Ag-ELISA. The result that crossbred pigs had a higher prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis suggests that pig breeds may display different susceptibility to cysticercosis. The limited use of latrines in these areas implies that people use the nearby bush for defecation, resulting in pigs having access to human faeces. Therefore, investigation of taeniosis and cysticercosis in humans is warranted to better comprehend the local epidemiology and transmission risks. This should then be followed by extension programs to communities so that the control plans that could be instituted are more sustainable.
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    Use of bait containing triclabendazole against Fasciola gigantica in a herd of captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus)
    (Cambridge University Press, 2016-05-26) Phiri, A.M.; Mudenda, N.M.; Luwe, M; Phiri, I.G.K.
    Although the efficacy of triclabendazole treatment against Fasciola gigantica has been shown before in cattle and buffaloes, there appears to be no published report on the efficacy of triclabendazole in impala or other antelope species. As part of a health monitoring programme at Mulungushi International Conference Centre, Lusaka, Zambia, a coprological examination was undertaken to investigate the helminthological status of captive impala (Aepyceros melampus). Of 39 fresh coprological samples, 46% contained F. gigantica. The source of infection was identified to be a fountain within the grounds of the conference centre. Lymnaea natalensis, collected from the study site, were induced to shed cercariae, and were thus confirmed as the snail intermediate host. In managing this disease, triclabendazole at 6mg/kg was administered together with the feed bait. Water from the pond was drained; vegetation within it cleared and the pond allowed to dry for 1 week before water was replaced. Three weeks post-treatment, faecal examination revealed that the Fasciola had been cleared. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first case of Fasciola spp. infection reported in captive wild impala in Zambia and provides evidence that triclabendazole may be delivered to free ranging antelope using medicated bait.