The effect of child-labour on child-rights in Makululu township of Kabwe district of Zambia’s central province.

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Hamoonga, Bevelyn
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The University of Zambia
The research sought to investigate the effect of child labour on child’s rights in Makululu Township of Kabwe District in Zambia’s Central Province. The general objective of this study was to investigate the effect of child labour on child rights in Makululu Township of Kabwe district in Zambia’s Central Province and the specific objectives were; to establish the specific types of child labour experienced in Makululu Township of Kabwe district; to identify the effects of child labour on child rights in Makululu Township of Kabwe district; and to suggest possible ways of minimizing child labour in Makululu Township of Kabwe district. The questionnaires were used to collect data from teachers, victim support officers, labour officer, child rights activists and parents. For the pupils, an interview guide was administered and focus group discussions were used to extract data from parents and pupils. The researcher also used observation as a data collection instrument in this study. In terms of approach, the study was qualitative and in terms of design, the study was a descriptive survey. The study was social in nature and descriptive as it is concerned with describing a particular group of people. The descriptive survey research design was used in the research to collect data in order to answer the questions concerning the effect of child-labour on child rights in Makululu town ship of Kabwe district. A descriptive design was selected because of its high degree of representativeness and the ease with which a researcher obtained the participants’ opinions. In this study, the sample comprised total number of 30 participants. The sample size was selected as follows; teachers (2), pupils (10), Child Rights Activists (5), parents (10), District Labour Officer (1) and Victim Support Officers (2).Purposive sampling was employed in this study in order to make adequate representation of the study population. The method is based on the judgment of the researcher regarding the characteristics of the representative sample. The reason for using purposive sampling in the area of the study was to provide targeted information pertaining on the effect of child labour on child’s rights in Makululu Township Kabwe district. The main findings of the study indicate that poverty has come out to be the main source of effect of child –labour on child and drugs. Others include prostitutions, early marriages because of coming from poor families. This has resulted to contract different diseases such as HIV/AIDS, STDs, malnutrition, malnourished, maternal mortality rate, have health complications are unhappy. Child have stopped going to school as a result there is high level of illiteracy in Makululu township of Kabwe district. Poverty has also contributed to broken homes because of high level of unemployment in Kabwe district. The main conclusion of the study on the effect of child –labour on child rights in Makululu township of Kabwe district, the outcome of these various factors is a situation in which children are faced to engage in survival strategies some of which make them vulnerable to sexual exploitation, child marriage or trafficked into exploitative condition of work. Economic situation has led a multiple harmful consequences in life of children. Poverty has made many children not to attend school, in order to earn a living and thus different forms such as; physical, emotional and some of the contributions include broken family relations, cultural dilution. Children are lacking basic needs, medical care as a result majority of them are exposed to dangerous things in the streets like sniffing petrol, drinking mentholated sprits languishing in extremely un healthy living condition. This study made the following recommendations; programmes that support education of children up to tertiary level are recommended because they can be used to directly fight poverty which is a major cause of child labour. The central statistical office should periodically conduct special studies to document the employment of children under the age of 13 and of special population of children. Adequate resources should be allocated to enhance the benefits associated with youth employment and children education. Minors should not be allowed to do hazardous jobs for the family, especially on the streets. There is need also to improve the understanding of the content of the child right and responsibilities among the children. The Ministry of General Education on the other hand, should train teachers in the rights and responsibilities of the child in all schools.
Human rights. , Child labor--Zambia.