Institute of Distance Education

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 531
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    Information needs and self-care practices of diabetic patients in Mbala, Northern province, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2022) Simuyemba, Chisha Jones
    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. It is “a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both” manifested by carbohydrates, fat and protein metabolism abnormality. If untreated high blood sugar can damage the nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs. The purpose of this study was to assess the information needs and self-care practice of Diabetic Patients in Mbala, Northern Province Zambia. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study where 105 respondents aged 18 years and above participated in the study. Participants were randomly selected. A structured interview schedule and a check list were used to collect data. Statistics Package for Social Sciences computer software package version 23.0 was used to analyze data. Chi square and fisher’s exact tests were used to test the significance of the association between Knowledge on Diabetes Mellitus, attitude towards self-care practices, self-care practices among Diabetic patients and the need for information among Diabetic patients. A 95% confidence interval and P value of 0.05 were used to ascertain the degree of significance. Multivariate binary logistic regression model to determine predictors of self-care practices and need for information was also used. Result: On analyzing the dependent variables, more than half (61.9%), had high need for information and three quarters (85.7%) of respondents had poor self-care practices. Slightly more than half (58.1%) had high knowledge levels majority (78.1%), had a negative attitude. Significant associations were found P < 0.05 between knowledge levels and self-care practices (P-value 0.017), and between attitude and self-care practices (P-value 0.005). Information needs were also associated with knowledge (P-value 0.040) while attitude (P-value 0.198) showed no association with information needs of Diabetic patients. On multivariable logistic analysis patients with low knowledge levels were 0.080 times less likely to achieve good self-care practices (OR: 0.080, CI: 0.009 - 0.623, P: < 0.020) and those with a negative attitude were 0.174 less likely to achieve good self-care practices (OR: 0.174, CI: 0.049 - 0.584, P: < 0.006). Patients who had low knowledge levels were 2.263 times more likely to have a high need for information compared to those who had high knowledge levels, and this effect was significant (OR: 2.263, CI: 0.957 – 5.104, P: < 0.05). Conclusion: Negative attitude and lack of information among Diabetic patients were the main reasons associated with poor self-care practices. Particular attention should therefore be given to ensuring that Diabetic patients are given adequate information on Diabetes self-care in order to improve the quality of life.
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    Relationship between support services provided by one stop- center and prevalence of GBV cases in Kitwe district, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia, 2021) Chipowe, Ireen
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the support services offered at the One-Stop Centers (OSCs) and the prevalence of GBV cases in Kitwe District. The study adopted a quantitative approach, and data were collected using questionnaires with the victims and staff of Buchi, Boma, and Luangwa clinics OSCs. The findings of the study indicated that the relationship between psychosocial support and reporting of GBV is significant. The study also revealed that the relationship between legal support and access to justice is significant. In addition, the relationship between psychosocial support and the protection of the GBV victims is significant. The study also showed that the relationship between psychosocial support and the protection of GBV victims is significant. On the other hand, the study showed that the relationship between staff coordination and prevention of GBVcases is insignificant. The study concludes that while the relationship between social support at OSCs and GBV prevalence is significant, the staff coordination at OSCs and the prevalence of GBV are insiginificant. The lack of coordination among the staff of the OSCs indicates that the services offered at the OCS centers are not comprehensive, contrary to the objectives of the OSCs. The study, therefore, recommends strengthening staff coordination at the OSCs to make the fight against GBV more effective.
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    Teachers' competences in the design and delivery of chemistry practical work.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Chama, Sarah
    The aim of the study was to investigate chemistry teacher’s competencies in the design and delivery of chemistry practical work in selected schools of Kitwe District. The objectives of the study were to: determine the nature of chemistry practical activities designed and delivered by teachers of chemistry, establish the range of science process skills developed through the practical activities designed by teachers of chemistry and describe the level of creativity in practical activities designed by the teachers of chemistry. The study used a qualitative approach and a case study design. The target population was chemistry teachers teaching the two chemistry syllabi; pure Chemistry (5070) and Science (5124) in selected schools of Kitwe district. The sample comprised of six chemistry teachers and 24 pupils drawn from three secondary schools. The study involved the use of: observation schedule, semi-structured interview schedule, focus group discussion guide and document analysis schedule to collect data. The findings showed that most of the practical activities designed by teachers were characterised by learners following laid down procedures. It was also noted that the focus of most of these practical activities was to expose learners to pieces of apparatus, verify and confirm what was discussed during theory lessons. The range of science process skills developed from the nature of chemistry practical activities designed and delivered by chemistry teachers were; observation, classification, communication, measuring, experimenting, interpreting data and using numbers. However, these process skills were not effectively developed to the extent that could lead learners to construct their own understanding. There was no variety in the practical activities given to the learners, pointing to lack of creativity and innovation in the practical activities designed by chemistry teachers. There is need for science teacher educators to strengthen their education programs in terms of student exposure to practical activities especially investigative ones. Science standard officers should organise workshops and continuous professional development for chemistry teachers to train them on how to design practical activities. Chemistry teachers should form communities of practice so as to share ideas on practical activity design and material improvisation.
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    Factors associated with low utilization of female condoms as a birth control method among women of reproductive age (15 – 49 years) in Nabbanda, Chirundu district, Zambia.
    (The University of Zambia., 2023) Kabwela, Isaac
    The study intends to establish factors associated with low utilization of female condoms as a birth control method among women of reproductive age (15 – 49 years) in Nabbanda, Chirundu district, Zambia.” and what can be done to resolve this. A case study will be used which will involve application of qualitative methods. A sample of 159 participants will be drawn from the population. The sample size for this study will consist of female respondents of child bearing age in the range of 15 – 49 years. All women aged 15-49 who attend clinic at Nabbanda are all invited to participate in the study and it’s the choice of the participant whether to participate or not therefore participation in this study is entirely voluntary. The study found that the knowledge levels of the Nabbanda residents on the female condom was average due to inadequate information on the female condom and its use as well as lack of proper female condom promotion. While the attitudes towards its use were not favorable mainly due to unavailability, preference of male condom use, power relations between men and women in a relationship, insertion of the female condom being a hassle and it looking weird. Additionally under service delivery there is inability to open up to health care workers. While due to myths and misconception there is a belief that using a condom reduces intimacy with their partner and belief that condoms make men weak. It is therefore recommended that government and all interested stakeholders should increase efforts at female condom education, promotion, availability and access. It is vital that these are done in order to increase the possibility of high utilization of these condoms and if people are very knowledgeable about female condoms this can lead to improvement in service delivery by making them free to ask for one and also enables them to clear any myth or misconception associated with these condoms hence more people being able to use them.
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    Evaluation on effectiveness of scaled up control intervetion towards malaria prevalence among children in Chienge district of Luapula province.
    (The University of Zambia., 2023) Hamoonga, Emmy
    In Chiengi District, more than 10 years after Scaled up malaria control interventions has not seen any drastic reduction in the number of morbidity and mortality of malaria cases. The study aimed at evaluating on effectiveness of scaled up control intervention towards malaria prevalence among children in Chienge District. The independent variables included Diagnostic Methods of Malaria, Malaria Treatment and Preventive measures being implemented in the Control of Malaria. Records indicated that the prevalence of the burden of malaria among the under 5 children in Chienge District was at 30%. Therefore, a cross sectional study or survey using the quantitative approach has helped to cover the prevalence of malaria in Chienge District. The targeted populations of the research study are all the people who were caregivers to children who are susceptible to malaria in Chiengi District. The data that was collected used both the primary and secondary data sources. For primary data, a questionnaire was used which contained both closed and open ended questions and secondary data was collected from statistical records from health facilities. The primary data was processed and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software version 20. The findings showed that mostly Rapid Diagnosis Test (RDT) is mostly used for testing malaria among the people. The caregivers delay in seeking medical treatment for children in the area which adverse effects treatment. Coartem is mostly used in treatment of malaria of which due to poor practices of not finishing the drugs has resulted into drug resistance among the people. The district has maintained free distribution of ITNs among the vulnerable group. The study noted, people uses the ITNs as fishing nets and children are left without sleeping under the net. The study showed that the proximity of residence to stagnant water and poor use of ITNs are the most dominant risk factors for malaria infection. The study showed that distribution of ITNs coverage is important factor to achieve significant reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality which demands sensitization to increase the levels of awareness of the people regarding the diseases through health education on scaled up control measures using different media, and community based organizations.