Humanities and Social Sciences

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    Effectiveness of the national road tolling programme in promoting road infrastructure development in Zambia: a case study of toll gates in Lusaka province.
    (The University of Zambia, 2024) Mutungwa, Nachi M.
    Over the years the Government of the Republic of Zambia has strived to broaden options for generating income to the road sector due to the pivotal role that roads play in economic development. Traditionally, the major sources of funds for road infrastructure development have been direct government funding, national road fund and donor community funds. However, these funds have been insufficient thereby hindering the adequate construction and maintenance of roads in the country. To mitigate this challenge, the government in 2013 introduced the NRTP based on the provisions of the Tolls Act No. 14 of 2011 to broaden the financing options for road infrastructure development in the country. The general objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the NRTP in promoting road infrastructure development in Lusaka Province. The specific objectives of his research are to assess the extent to which the NRTP has improved the collection of toll fees, examine the extent to which the NRTP allocates road toll fees towards road infrastructure development and assess the extent to which the NRTP maintains roads in Lusaka Province. This research was evaluative and the research design used was a case study. It made use of questionnaires and interview guides to collect quantitative and qualitative data, which were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and thematic analysis, respectively. The sample size was 109 comprising 100 motorists and nine key informants who were conveniently and purposively sampled, respectively. The findings show that the NRTP has been very effective in collecting road toll fees from motorists in Lusaka Province. This is because an average amount of 14.8 million is collected from the Shimabala and Chongwe Toll Gates monthly against a total collection target of 14 million. This indicates that 106% of the targeted amount is collected. Further, an amount of 177.6 is collected from the two toll gates annually, against the required amount of 168 million. This amount is only 45% of the targeted amount of K396 million needed for road infrastructure development indicating that the programme is not effective in allocating road toll fess to road infrastructure development. Additionally, the programme has not improved the condition of the Great East and Kafue roads in the province as both roads are still in poor condition. This research recommends that the government should increase the annual budgetary allocations to road infrastructure development on order to supplement the efforts of the NRTP.
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    Rural development through industrialisation: a case study of Mansa batteries limited, 1978-1994.
    (The University of Zambia, 2024) Chola, Kelvin
    The study traces the origin and development of Mansa Batteries Limited with the view of examining the challenges the Company faced, as well as assessing its socio-economic impact on the people of Mansa and the neighbouring districts. It reveals that the need for regional balancing in terms of allocating industries in the country and the presence of Manganese in Mansa were the major factors which led to the establishment of the battery factory in the area. The study indicates that Spark batteries constituted of mostly imported raw materials; a situation which management through the Company’s Research Committee attempted to turn around by substituting foreign raw materials with local ones. However, the attempts failed to a great extent since most of the raw materials which Mansa Batteries Limited sought to purchase from local suppliers were processed from imported inputs, which made the manufacturers not to venture into commercial production due to difficulties faced in importing such inputs. The study shows that Mansa Batteries Limited faced numerous operational challenges which included capacity underutilisation, machine breakdowns, lack of foreign exchange to purchase foreign raw materials, components and machinery; inadequate qualified personnel and poor product quality. The study reveals that typical of most parastatals in Zambia, Mansa Batteries Limited faced administrative challenges and political interference which largely contributed to its poor performance. Additionally, the study shows that economic problems such as loan repayment obligations, credit sales, Kwacha depreciation and trade liberalisation negatively affected the performance of the Company. The study further demonstrates that the numerous operational, administrative and economic challenges the Company perpetually faced over the years induced liquidity problems which became very serious in 1993, and resulted in frequent closures of the factory in 1993 and 1994, before it was finally placed under receivership by the Development Bank of Zambia in November, 1994.The study argues that in spite of the numerous challenges the Company faced, it had positive economic and social impact on the people Mansa and the neighbouring districts.
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    The phonology and morphology of Icibemba loanwords from english.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Kangwa, Njenje Kennedy
    This PhD thesis involved conducting a phonological and morphological analysis of loanwords from English into Icibemba, a major language spoken in the Northern, Copperbelt and Luapula provinces of Zambia as well as parts of Muchinga and Central provinces. The main aim of this research was to analyse the phonological and morphological changes that take place to those English words that are incorporated into Icibemba as a result of borrowing. This study was guided by four research objectives: To transcribe, gloss and allocate the loanwords into Icibemba nominal classes by assembling a representative corpus; to describe and compare the segmental phonology and syllable structure of English and Icibemba; to analyze the various phonological processes involved in the adaptation of English loanwords into Icibemba and; to analyze the various morphological processes involved in the adaptation of English loanwords into Icibemba. Data for this research was collected mostly from Kashoki’s books. These books put together with Kangwa’s (2007) study supplied this research with a robust list of loanwords in the Icibemba grammar. The other portion of data was generated by the researcher, a native and competent speaker who has been exposed to the standard variety of Icibemba, spoken in Kasama, Northern Province of Zambia. In analyzing the findings of this study, for phonology, the research used CV Phonology and Lexical Phonology and Morphology (LPM) was used in analysing morphology. The study essentially used a qualitative method supplemented by quantitative data. It was discovered that in phonology, the repair strategies that apply to these foreign words, among others, included vowel epenthesis, deletion and substitution. Among these strategies, vowel epenthesis was discovered to be one that was usually applied. The high vowels (i and u) played a major role in insertion. Most of the Icibemba loanwords from English were nouns. Adapted words from English are assigned tone when they are incorporated into Icibemba. There are no diphthongs in Icibemba. The English diphthongs coming into the language through loanwords all show a pattern of adaptation similar to the one exhibited by the monophthongs. Like Icibemba nouns, borrowed English nouns were affected by the Bantu class system. Adapted Nouns from English acquire augments and prefixes when they are taken over to Icibemba. The class prefix was assigned to adapted nouns in Icibemba on the basis of the initial syllable resemblance to a class prefix, the semantic content of the adapted word and on the basis of the zero prefix in some classes. Another point worth mentioning was that there were no regularities in the patterns of loanword allocation into Icibemba noun classes except that most loans were allocated to class 1a/2a regardless of their meanings. The study also revealed that verb extensions, reduplication, gliding, vowel fusion and resyllabification (a phenomenon that typically characterise Bantu languages) were applied to Icibemba loanwords from English. It was also concluded that usually when a loanword from English contains the environment for a phonological or morphological rule in Icibemba, that rule would apply to the loanword. It is hoped that this study will stimulate further research in the Icibemba loanwords from English in areas of semantics and syntax so as to deepen a phonological and morphological understanding of adaptation. The research has only concentrated on the adaptation of loanwords from English. Icibemba has also borrowed lexical items from other African languages like Kiswahili and Nyanja. It is recommended that further research on how Icibemba adapts words from other languages should be carried ou
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    Relationship between violent video game playing and aggression in adolescents of two secondary schools in Lusaka district.
    (The University of Zambia, 2019) Nakazwe-Sumbwa, Bupe
    The current study investigated the impact of media violence, focusing on the relationship between violent video game playing and aggression in adolescents from two schools. The study was quantitative in nature and used a survey research design. A sample of 200 boys and girls were recruited from two schools; one private and the other public. Of the 200, each school had 50 boys and 50 girls. A 2×3×2 factorial plan consisting of two levels of gender (boy / girl), three types of aggression (physical / verbal / anger) and SES was used. In this study, school (private / public) was the main indicator of SES. All three measures used were self-reported; a Demographic Questionnaire which looked at the participant‟s gender, parents/guardians education and residential background, the Free Time Questionnaire on the other hand examined the participant‟s favorite games and amount of time spend playing and the Buss-Perry Aggression Mode Questionnaire measured the participant‟s aggression levels based on three types; physical, verbal and anger. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used to analyse data. Descriptive analysis of game preference and time spent playing were conducted using means and frequencies. Comparisons across gender and schools representing different SES were conducted using an ANOVA, while Pearson‟s correlation explored the relationship between violent video game play and aggression. Further computations using a simple regression analysis was used to determine whether violent video games predicted aggression. Findings indicated that violence was present in the games played and that these games were played in the selected schools with boys reporting (5.1 times and 67% preference on average) more time playing and a higher preference for games with a violent content than the girls (1.8 time and 32% preference). Correlational analyses indicated significant positive relationship between aggression and playing violent video games. Regression analyses also indicated that violent video games predicted aggression. Boys scored higher on physical and anger aggression than the girls but scored less than the girls on verbal aggression. Overall, the results indicate a connection between exposure to violence in video games and its negative effects such as aggression on secondary school pupils. These results are significant because exposure to violent video games is mostly common in adolescents who are most likely to demonstrate these adverse effects. The findings suggest the need for intervention measures to be put in place to address this problem in schools.
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    A study of factors that determine micro and small enterprises (MSEs) adoption of mobile money for business transactions: a case of MSEs in Lusaka central business district.
    (The University of Zambia, 2023) Ngwira, Tasila Alice
    The Study aimed to understand the factors that influence the adoption of mobile money services for business transaction purposes by small and medium enterprises (MSEs) in Lusaka. The aim was divided into three specific objectives. These objectives were to assess the factors that determine the use of mobile money by MSEs for business transaction purposes; to examine the relationship between these factors and the use of mobile money by MSEs for business transaction purposes, and to ascertain the effect of the factors on the use of mobile money by MSEs for business transaction purposes. The study used cross-sectional primary data. The study employed a pragmatism research philosophy and mixed research approach. The data was collected using a survey questionnaire administered by the researcher to respondents sampled using purposive sampling techniques. The study had a sample size of 102 respondents. The empirical results showed that most businesses who use Airtel money started using it less than a year ago, consider the cost to be fair, save on the platform, are affected by insufficient space borrow on the platform and are also affected by the unavailability of agents. The regression results showed that savings and insufficient float have a statistically significant impact on the adoption of mobile money. Saving using mobile money increases the likelihood of using it to conduct business transactions and issues of insufficient float among agents constrain the probability of using it to conduct business transactions. From the findings, it was recommended that mobile money providers create a mobile money product tailored for micro and small businesses.